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Self-worth in Motivation

Self-worth theories of Motivation in Educational Psychology

Stanley Goh

on 14 February 2013

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Transcript of Self-worth in Motivation

Achievement Self Worth Performance Ability Effort The end towards which a student works towards.
The final cause that the student's perceptions of self drive him/her towards.
A source of extrinsic motivation. Perception of own ability to achieve success and avoid failure. Perception of ability is the primary activator of achievement behaviour...
...because ability is seen as the cause of success. Self-worth is heavily dependent on performance.
Self-worth increases with good performance, decreases otherwise. Important as a determinant of performance.
Changes with age - value lessens as one grows up. Effort: A double-edged sword Reduction of guilt


Feeling of worthiness Perception of failure

Perception of inability

Feeling of humiliation

Loss of worthiness High Effort Low Effort

Endurance of guilt

Reduction in humiliation
Failure managed with excuses Approach Approach Avoidance Avoidance High High Low Low Success-
students Failure-
students Failure-
students Overstrivers Intrinsically motivated; ability leads to success in self-mastery High hopes for success but have excessive fear of failure.
Often, show combination of low aspirations and excessive effort. Highly motivated to avoid failure but have low aspirations.
Avoid humiliation through self-handicapping. Acceptance of failure that leads to little or no effort.
Failure as confirmation of lack of ability. Failure Avoidance Strategies Self-worth Protection Withholding effort to keep failure ambiguous.
Not trying becomes a virtue for failure-avoiding students. Self-handicapping strategies Defensive pessimism Creation of real or imagined impediments to performance.
Procrastination, unrealistically high goals, fantasies. Unrealistically low expectations for success.
Discounting importance of success to minimise anxiety. Activity Consider the situations given. What would you do? Implication: Ability Games School is likened to a game, a serious learning game with a complicated set of rules. Motive to outperform others.
A fear-driven motive to achieve. “No single thing contributes more to a student’s sense of worth than does a good report card, nor devastates it so completely as do poor grades.” (Covington, 1992) Consider Ms Jackson's class
Noel, Sean and Lydia Recommendations: What to do? For the classroom For the student Through non-Competitive learning structures

Mastery learning with emphasis on self-comparisons and skilled effort.
Cooperative learning.
Individual goal setting and contract learning. Through valuation of learning in the individual.

See the process of learning to be seen as important as content.
Encourage additional sources of worth beyond ability.
Recognise the impact of cognitive, motivational, and emotional factors on achievement . SELF IN SELF-WORTH PROTECTION:
POSSIBLE SELVES AND SELF-PROTECTIVE STRATEGIES Results and Analysis Self-worth protective strategies positively correlated to fear of failure; self-handicapping and defensive expectations negatively correlated to need for achievement.

High fear of failure and low need for achievement tended to be coincident with self-handicapping and defensive expectations.

Balanced possible selves acted as a moderator between fear of failure. Reflectivity through this balance helped further moderation. Objectives Examine how the students' possible selves could potentially assist researchers and practitioners in designing interventions for students who risk their academic performance by resorting to detrimental, self-worth protective strategies. Implications The knowledge of possible selves as a moderating factor – the higher the balance between hopes and fears, the higher the reflectivity, a strategy that has been found to be positively predictive of self-regulation and higher grades.

The use of positive selves as a diagnostic tool to look for negativity and tendency to self-handicap.
Programmes to help mitigate the negative self, to bring in home and positive effects there. Methodology 253 college students in California.
Validated instruments to measure self-handicapping, defensive mechanisms and fear of failure.
Probable selves were recorded via coded open-ended questionnaire. “Self-worth theory assumes that the achievement goals adopted by students, whether learning oriented or performance oriented, reflect a Promethean, life-spanning struggle to establish and maintain a sense of worth and belonging in a society that values competency and doing well.” (Covington 2000) Motivation to Act Sense of Worthiness perception of own ability that leads to strategies employed for maintenance of -esteem -efficacy -worth e-/x e- e+/x e+ Conditions of Failure Negativity of Emotions (Shame and sense of inability) Students' self-perception Students' perception of teacher opinion Characteristics of Ms Jackson Traditional approach to teaching and grading.
Grades are an important motivator. More praise will lead to higher grades.
Healthy competition in small doses encourages students to do their best.
Everyone should feel successful - some may get good grades just for completing assignments.
Always open, accepting and supportive of students. Seli, Helena; Dembo, Myron H.; Crocker, Stephen.
College Student Journal. 2009, Vol. 43 Issue 3, p832-842. So What now? Perception Intervention Awareness Ames, Carole A. "Motivation: What Teachers Need to Know." Teachers College Record (91) 3 (1990): 409-421.

Beery, Richard G. "Fear of Failure in the Student Experience." The Personnel and Guidance Journal 54, no. 4 (1975): 191-203.

Covington, Martin V. "Goal Theory, Motivation, and School Achievement: An Integrative Review." Annual Review of Psychology 51 (2000): 171-200.

Covington, Martin V. "The Self-Worth Theory of Achievement Motivation: Findings and Implications." The Elementary School Journal 85, no. 1 (1984): 4-20.

Covington, Martin V and Kimberly J. Mueller. “Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation: An approach/avoidance reformulation.” Education Psychology Review 13, no. 2 (2001): 157–176.

Schunk, Dale H., Paul R. Pintrich, and Judith L. Meece. Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson, 2008.

Seli, Helena, Myron H. Dembo, and Stephen Crocker. "Self in Self-Worth Protection: The Relationship of Possible Selves and Self-Protective Strategies." College Student Journal (43) 3 (2009): 832-842. References
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