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The History of Chemistry
Transcript of The History of Chemistry
A Timeline Alchemy Distancing from the Classical Elements In 1526, medicinal alchemist Paraselsus proposed that there were not 5, but 3 main elements: Salt, Sulfer, and Mercury. He was subsequently exiled to Germany by the mainstream medical community. The Discovery of Oxygen October 6, 1807- Humphry Davy
had been working with potash and split it
successfully. Through this process Davy had
discovered Potassium. Davy discovered 6
more new elements such as Chlorine and Iodine. Ancient Greece The Classical Elements It was originally theorized that there were 5 Classical elements. Aether The 16th century The 1660s 1661 - Robert Boyle publishes "The Sceptical Chymist." 1667- Yohan Beker uses phlogiston
to explain pure substances. It discouraged the thinking in the classical elements or those of Paraselsus, and gave us the modern baseline definition for an element today. It also set the groundwork for the eventual atomic theory and the development of the scientific process as a whole. 1669- Henry Cavendish, a shy man,
decides to add zinc to an acid, which
ends up producing a new type of gas;
Hydrogen. Trials and Airs Based off of Cavendish's discovery of hydrogen, chemists of the day began classifying gases as special kinds of airs. Breathable air was "Common air."
Hydrogen was "Inflammable Air."
Carbon Dioxide was "Fixed Air." 1774 - Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen, and its property as a breathable air. After testing the gas on rats, he tried breathing some for himself! 1829- Humphry Davy dies at the age of 50 Priestly also experimented with carbon dioxide and invented soda. 1911- Ernest Rutherford performs the gold foil experiment, discovering that the atom is made up of a dense, positive nucleus, surrounded by an electron cloud of sorts. He called it "Dephlogisticated Air" Priestly is now regarded as the first modern chemist. 1913- Niels Bohr introduces the concepts of quantum mechanics to atomic structure by stating what is now known as the Bohr model of the atom, where electrons exist in strict, defined orbitals. Antoine Lavoisier: The Father of Chemistry The Chemical Revolution 1913- Henry Moseley introduces the concept of atomic number to fix Mendeleev's periodic table errors, which was based on atomic weight. Lavoisier discussed Priestly's discoveries with him and was intrigued to do more research. 1927- Werner Heisenberg develops the uncertainty principle which explains the mechanics of electron motion around the nucleus Before being executed in 1794, Lavoisier: 1932- James Chadwick discovers the neutron. Came up with an early version of the Law of Conservation of Mass
Helped invent the metric system
Officially defined an "element"
Established the scientific method
Overhauled chemistry nomenclature and terminology
Made the first elemental classification system
Named and understood the significance of elements like oxygen and hydrogen
Disproved phlogiston and the classical elements Breaking the Unbreakable New Elements Continue to be Discoveed Potash Structures and Order Gold Digger One Nature, Indivisible The Development of Atomic Theory 1803 - English chemist John Dalton proposes Atomic Theory. This theory states that: All matter is composed of tiny individual particles called atoms
Different elements have different weights He also composed a prototype of the eventual periodic table. Dalton may have proposed Atomic theory, but he wasn't the first to think of it... Russian chemist, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, is credited with having discovered the periodic table. Realized and arranged elements by atomic mass in a "periodic" way making sure the ones with similar properties were in vertical columns together. With this method, he was also able to correctly predict the properties of yet-unknown elements. Mendeleev's periodic table first appeared in his work "On the Relationship of the Properties of the Elements to their Atomic Weights" in the year 1869. Mendeleev The Great and Powerful Greek philosopher Democritus puts forth the idea that all things are made up of tiny indivisible particles. No one takes this idea seriously for almost 2000 years. Chemical Developments of the 20th Century Other Chemical Advancements in the 19th Century 1801-1828 Jöns Jacob Berzelius discovers cerium, selenium, silicon, and thorium.
1829 Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner develops the concept of elemental families. 1858 Stanislao Cannizzaro used the densities of gases to measure their atomic weights 1859 Kirchhoff and Bunsen invent the spectroscope. They also discover cesium and rubidium. 1863 John Newlands develops the Law of Octaves based on Döbereiner's work. This later morphs into the Law of Periodicity. He correctly predicts the existence of germanium. 1868 Pierre Janssen discovers helium during a total solar eclipse 1875 Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovers gallium. This discovery supports Mendeleev's predictions. 1885-1894 Sir William Ramsay discovers argon, neon, krypton, and xenon. He also finds helium within the Earth's crust. And here we are today. By Adam Lewis and Alessandro Zanet 1669- Hennig Brand discovers the new element phosphorus by heating and boiling his own urine.