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Events leading to the American Revolution
Transcript of Events leading to the American Revolution
One of the first major taxes passed by Parliament was the Stamp Act. New Taxes for the Colonists Britain decided the best way to punish Boston was with a set of actions they called the Coercive Acts.
(Coercive means to dominate or force someone, especially by fear.)
Colonists would call these new laws the Intolerable Acts.
(Intolerable means excessive, or something they would not put up with.) British leaders react: Declaring Independence Shots are fired at Lexington and Concord. The American Revolution has begun! After the French and Indian War, the British government found themselves in debt. IAN foldable:
Why were the British in debt? What did the British Parliament say about this debt? Britain sent supplies and troops to help the colonies. American colonists should repay the debt. The Stamp Act The Tea Act Tea was still being taxed because of the Townshend Acts.
The Tea Act was NOT a tax, but instead a law about how the colonists must get their tea.
The British East India Company was the only company allowed to sell tea in the colonies. (While their tea was cheap, the taxes on this tea was very high.) What was the Stamp Act?
The Stamp Act was a tax placed on all papers. After the Boston Tea Party : Britain Reacts News of the Boston Tea Party made British leaders furious!
They set out to punish Boston. The British fought the French and their Native American allies (friends) in this war. Can you remember what they were fighting over? IAN foldable: (right side)
What did the British gain after winning the French and Indian War?
Answer (write this under the flap)
The British won control of the Ohio River Valley. The colonists were extremely upset about the idea of paying taxes, especially if Parliament told them to.
Before the French and Indian War, they were allowed to have self-government and make their own laws, including taxes.
They believed it was the right of their colonial assemblies to pass taxes, not the King or Parliament. Why should the colonists pay? The war was fought to defend the colonists' land. How would the colonists repay the debt? British Parliament passed laws that taxed the colonists. Stamps like these on the right were placed on all types of paper. Colonists would be taxed when they bought legal documents, newspapers, and even playing cards! The Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament and supported by King George III. The colonists had no voice in British Parliament.
What did angry colonists begin to shout to show they disagreed? "NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!" IAN Activity - Left Side Benjamin Franklin’s “Join or Die” is America’s first political cartoon. It was printed in the Philadelphia Gazette in 1754. The cartoon was based on a popular legend that a snake had been cut into pieces would come back to life if the pieces were joined together by sunset. The cartoon became very popular and was published in many different newspapers throughout the colonies.
What do you think Benjamin Franklin was trying to tell the colonists? Tomorrow:
We will discuss how the colonists reacted to the Stamp Act. We know that many colonists did not agree with the Stamp Act.
How do you think colonists reacted to the Stamp Act? This video will help review events leading up to the Stamp Act and early reactions of colonists to this tax. As more and more colonists decided they did not want to pay these British taxes, colonial leaders began to speak up.
Patrick Henry, a young lawyer from Virginia, was one of the first to speak out.
He told the House of Burgesses (Virginia's law-making legislature) that King George III and Parliament had no right to tax the colonists. STAMP ACT CONGRESS Patrick Henry helped to inspire others to protest the Stamp Act. In October 1765 leaders of nine colonies held a meeting in New York City.
At this Stamp Act Congress, colonial leaders discussed what the colonies should do to let King George III know they disagreed with the Stamp Act. Several important things happened because of this Stamp Act Congress:
- A petition was sent to British leaders asking Parliament to repeal, or cancel, the Stamp Act
- A boycott of British goods was declared. Colonists refused to buy goods imported from Britain.
- Groups known as the Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty were formed. Benjamin Franklin's Join or Die cartoon Other colonial leaders begin to speak out!
Colonial leaders such as Samuel Adams and Benjamin Franklin join the protest against the Stamp Act.
A cartoon drawn and published by Benjamin Franklin during the French and Indian War became a symbol of protest against the Stamp Act. This political cartoon encouraged colonists to unite together, not as citizens of their colony, but as Americans. Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty Samuel Adams helped to create the Sons of Liberty, a group that would lead protests against the Stamp Act and other British laws.
The Sons of Liberty were more violent in their protests of British rule. - Stamps were burned
- Stamp agents were threatened and sometimes attacked
- Life sized puppets of Stamp agent were hung in trees The Sons of Liberty hoped that these violent protests would scare the stamp agents.
IT WORKED! This brief video will show other forms of protests by colonists and the Sons of Liberty. IAN Activity - right side IAN Activity (left side) Write a 1st person response pretending you are a colonist.
"How do you feel about the Stamp Act?" The Stamp Act is repealed!!! The colonists' boycott and protest proved that Britain would NOT make money through the Stamp Act. New Taxes Since the Stamp Act was repealed, new taxes were created. The Townshend Acts placed a tax on imported goods from Britain - including paper, wool, tea, and other goods.
Once again, the colonists protested and boycotted British goods. Protests became more and more violent. Tax collectors were often chased down and tortured by colonists.
Many times these tax agents were covered with hot tar and feathers while boiling tea was poured down their throats. Colonial protests soon led to the Boston Massacre. The same day as the Boston Massacre, Parliament decided to repeal the Townshend Acts.....except for the tax on tea. Colonists did not like being taxed without a voice in government. They also did not like being forced to get their tea from one company.
The Sons of Liberty were afraid that colonists would end their boycott on British tea since it was so cheap.
Something must be done! Colonists declared that British ships carrying tea would not be allowed in colonial ports.
On the night of December 16, 1773, members of the Sons of Liberty took action.
Their actions would become known as the Boston Tea Party. Complete the tea kettles as we discuss today's lesson. IAN Activity (left side) Draw a comic to summarize the events of the Boston Tea Party. The cartoon should show the events that led to the Tea Party. Today we will look at Britain's response to the Boston Tea Party. Then we will look at how the Patriots respond: The Coercive (Intolerable) Acts The Intolerable Acts did three main things to punish the people of Boston:
1. The port of Boston was closed.
No ships could come into or leave the ports of Boston until the damaged tea had been paid for.
The economy of Boston depended on trade, so many people were soon out of work.
The Coercive (Intolerable) Acts 2. The colony of Massachusetts was not allowed to govern itself.
British General Thomas Gage was put in control of Massachusetts.
Britain wanted the colonists to recognize that Parliament had the right to make tax laws for the colonies. The Coercive (Intolerable) Acts 3. British soldiers are sent back to Boston. Colonists are ordered to provide food and shelter for these soldiers. Leaders from 12 colonies decided to meet to discuss how to address the Intolerable Acts.
This meeting is now called the First Continental Congress. The First Continental Congress Representatives at this meeting decided to do 3 things in response to the Intolerable Acts. 1. ALL trade with Britain
would be boycotted until
the Intolerable Acts were
repealed. The First Continental Congress 2. A petition was sent to King George III. The First Continental Congress 3. The Continental Congress agreed that each colony should begin training militias, or volunteer armies. Despite forming militias, many colonists hoped to settle their problems with Britain peacefully. IAN Activity - left side Pretend you are a LOYALIST. Write a letter to the king explaining the colonists' problems with the Intolerable Acts.
Discuss what may happen if these laws continue.