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2.3 Carbon Compounds

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Maggie Clements

on 28 October 2013

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Transcript of 2.3 Carbon Compounds

Carbon Chemistry
What is organic chemistry?
Macromolecules
What compounds do you know that contain CARBON?
Sugar
C12H22O11

Carbon dioxide
CO2

What else?
Organic chemistry is the study of
compounds that contain carbon atoms.
Why is carbon so amazing? Why do we
devote an ENTIRE branch of chemistry
to the study of carbon?
Two reasons.
Reason #1:
Carbon can bond with many elements, including
hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen.
Many of these form the molecules found in living things.
carbon has four electrons in an
outer energy level that can hold
eight electrons. Lots of bonding
possibilities!
Reason #2:
Carbon can bond to other carbon atoms.
This allows it to make long CHAINS that
can be very very long, and even rings. Carbon
has the versatility to make many large and complex
molecules.
carbon makes single, double, or triple bonds.
Carbon makes rings and complex molecules.
What does macro mean?
BIG!
Macromolecules are made up of
thousands or hundreds of thousands
of smaller molecules.
Macromolecules are formed
by POLYMERIZATION.
Small units
(monomers)
join to make large units
(polymers)
Scientists classify macromolecules
according to chemical composition.
Four major groups:
1. carbohydrates
2. lipids
3. nucleic acids
4. proteins
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates:
compounds made of
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
usually in a 1:2:1 ratio.
Living things use
carbohydrates as...
main energy source
structural
purposes
breaking down sugars like glucose
provides energy for cell activities.
plants make cellulose, which gives them their fibers strength and rigidity.
Two types of carbohydrates...
1. Simple sugars
Single sugar molecules are called monosaccharides.
examples: glucose, galactose, fructose
Double sugar molecules are called disaccharides.
example: table sugar, which is called sucrose
2. Complex carbohydrates
polysaccharide: large macromolecule
formed from many monosaccharides.
animal example: glycogen or "animal starch"
which is broken down by your body to
make glucose when your blood sugar
starts to run low.
plant examples:
starch, which stores excess sugar
cellulose, which has structural purposes
Carbs in conclusion...
1. main source of ___________ for living things?
2. also used for ____________ purposes.
3. Simple sugars = ______________ and ______________.
4. Complex carbs = _______________________________.
Lipids = fats
technical definition:
a group of various molecules that are generally
not soluble in water. They are mostly made of carbon and hydrogen.
is this solute dissolving in the solvent?
lipids are used to store energy.
lipids are part of biological
membranes and waterproof
coverings.
hormones are steroids, which are made from lipids. Hormones send chemical messages throughout your body.
most lipids are formed in this way:
glycerol + fatty acid
all carbons are bound together by single bonds =
saturated fatty acid
at least one carbon-carbon bond is double or triple = unsaturated fatty acid
more than one carbon-carbon bond is double or triple = polyunsaturated fatty acid
lipids liquid at room temperature
are often unsaturated or polyunsaturated.
Nucleic Acids
What are nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids are macromolecules containing:
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.
Nucleic acid = polymer
nucleotide =
monomer
nucleotides have three parts:
1. a 5-carbon sugar
2. a phosphate group
3. a nitrogenous base
What do nucleic acids do?
Nucleic acids store and transmit
hereditary, or genetic, information.
Two kinds...
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid

RNA
Ribonucleic acid

Proteins
What are proteins?
Proteins are macromolecules that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Polymerization of proteins
monomer = amino acid
polymer = protein
peptide bonds are covalent bonds
a chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide.
Proteins are made of one or more polypeptides.
What do proteins do?
Proteins can...
1. control the rate of reactions
2. regulate cell processes
3. form important cell structures
4. transport substances in/out of cells
5. fight disease
more than 20 amino acids exist in nature
Proteins are very complex and
have FOUR levels of organization.
First level = amino acid sequence
(this is the order of the amino acids)
Second level = folding of peptide chain
Third level = "tertiary folding"
is further folding into a 3-dimensional
structure
Fourth level = describes
how multiple polypeptides
are arranged next to each other
in the protein.
Full transcript