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Transcript of Ch.3 Circulation
The Body's Transportation System
How might these two things be similar?
3.2 - A Closer Look at the Blood Vessels
Connect all the capillaries, arteries, and veins in your body together end to end and they would stretch around the earth twice!
3.3 - Blood and Lymph
What is blood?
What is it made of? Where does it come from?
What is lymph?
3.4 - Cardiovascular Health
Do they serve the same purpose?
Can they have the same problems?
The Cardiovascular System
Carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cell.
Blood also contains cells that fight disease.
The blood carries substances from one place in the body to another.
The blood also picks up waste from the cells and removes it.
Blood transports cells that attack microorganisms.
hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body
about the size of your fist
contracts over and over without getting tired!
How the Heart Works
Atrium - the two upper chambers of the heart
Ventricle - the lower chambers of the heart
Valve - flap of tissue that prevents the blood from flowing backwards
lub-dup is the sound heard during the pumping phase
The Force of the Ventricles
When your ventricles contract they force blood out of your heart and into your arteries.
Why might the left ventricle exert more force than the right when it pumps?
Regulation of Heartbeat
Pacemaker - group of cells in the heart that send out signals that make the heart contract
3 kinds of blood vessels: arteries, veins, capillaries
1st loop - from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
2nd loop - from the heart to the body and back to the heart
The whole trip takes less than a minute!
aorta - the largest artery in the body
Some blood vessels are as wide as your thumb, while others are finer than a human hair!
Blood travels through arteries after it leaves the heart.
The first branches off the aorta are called the coronary arteries, they carry blood back to the heart.
3 layers: epithelial, smooth muscle, and connective tissue
Your pulse is caused by the alternating expansion and relaxation of the artery.
How do your arteries regulate blood flow?
Blood leaves the arteries and enters the capillaries where it exchanges materials with body cells.
Capillaries are only one cell thick so diffusion happens fairly easily.
After blood leaves the capillaries it enters the veins, which carry the blood back to the heart.
Veins are made of three layers similar to arteries.
Why do veins need valves? Why is the muscle layer in veins smaller than arteries?
Blood pressure is caused by the force with which the ventricles contract.
Blood pressure is measured using an instrument called a sphygmomanometer.
Normal blood pressure is 120/80.
Made of four components:
45% of the volume of blood is cells, the rest is plasma
- the liquid part of the blood
Plasma is 90% water and 10% dissolved materials such as nutrients, hormones, and waste.
yellow because of proteins
What jobs do the proteins in plasma perform?
Red Blood Cells
Carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
Produced in bone marrow.
Mostly made of hemoglobin.
Live about 120 days.
Every second about 2,000,000 red blood cells in your body die.
Have no nucleus.
White Blood Cells
The disease fighters of the body!
What do WBC do?
recognize disease-causing organisms and alert the body
produce chemicals to fight invaders
surround and kill the organisms
WBC have nuclei, can live for months or years, and are larger than RBC.
cell fragments that form blood clots
Platelets release chemicals that eventually form fibrin.
Platelets themselves stick to the site of the wound.
Your plasma contains proteins that recognize red blood cells with foreign markers.
What happens if you get some blood that isn't your same type?
The Lymphatic System
The lymphatic system is a system of vessels that returns fluid to the blood stream.
The fluid in the lymphatic system is called lymph.
Your lymphatic system has no pump! How is this possible!?
Lymph nodes filter the lymph and trap bacteria and other microorganisms.
How do you keep your cardiovascular system healthy?
Cardiovascular diseases include atherosclerosis and hypertension.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States!
Who should care about cardiovascular health?
What should you do if you have a cardiovascular disease?
Why do you think this may be?
- a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the buildup of fatty materials
If atherosclerosis develops in the coronary arteries it could cause a heart attack, if it develops in the brain it could cause a stroke.
Treatment for atherosclerosis usually includes a low-fat diet and a moderate exercise program, some medications may be given, and if severe enough surgery may be required.
Hypertension aka (High Blood Pressure)
- a disorder in which a person's blood pressure is consistently higher than normal, usually higher than 140/90
Hypertension makes the heart work harder to pump blood, but it also may damage the walls of the blood vessels.
Known as the "silent killer".
How might hypertension and athersclerosis be related?
- strengthens your heart
- avoid trans and saturated fats
- Smokers are more than 2x more likely to have a heart attack