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Project Based Learning-Science-Heat and Temperature Topics 3-7

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Mira Khushbakht

on 7 January 2014

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Transcript of Project Based Learning-Science-Heat and Temperature Topics 3-7

What is happening to particles when there is a phase change?
A phase change is the transition from one state of matter to another. There are three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases. During a phase change the entire energy of a substance increases or decreases. This happens because the particle no longer change their speed, and begin to change their arrangement. However the average energy of the particles don't change. For each matter, the change is slightly different from one another.
When solid, the particles of a substance are tightly packed together, making it rigid. A substance can change from a solid state to a liquid state, and from a liquid state to a solid state.
The particles in liquid can move past one another. This allows liquids to flow. A substance in a liquid state can move from a solid state to a gas state.
Particles in a gas are spread out and free to move around. This is why gases fill all the space around them. A substance that is a gas can change to a liquid, and a liquid substance can change to gas.

Describe energy transfer systems?
What are the sources of thermal energy?
How is temperature and particle theory related?
Temperature and particle theory are related because when whenever increases (gets warmer) the particles are moving faster. When ever the temperature decreases (gets colder) the particles start moving slower.
*Example: When heat is transferred to cold, this causes the particles in the water to move faster. That rise in energy is what would be described as a rise in temperature.
What happens to solids, liquids and gases as they are A)warmed B)cooled?
*As solids are warmed, they begin to melt into liquids.
*As liquids are warmed, they evaporate and turn into gas.
*As gases are warmed, they will begin to expand.
*As solids are cooled, they become more stable and solid.
*As liquids are cooled, they turn into solids.
*As gases are cooled, they become into liquids.
What is the particle model of matter?
the particle model of matter is a scientific description of many different parts, of these tiny particles. One of the most important ideas of this are:
*All substances are made of tiny particles, too small to be seen.
*The particles are always in motion-vibrating, rotating, and (in liquids and gases) moving from place to place.
*The particles have spaces between them.
Here is a small description of each of the models of matter:- Solid:Particles are closely packed together. Liquid:Particles can slip past each other, and last but not least Gas:Particles have lots of space between them.
Project Based Learning -Science-Heat and Temperature Topics 3-7!
What is energy?
Energy is something's/someone's ability to do work, in other words to cause changes. Whenever something big happens, scientists are sure that energy is being shifted from one object to another.Energy gives us heat so we can keep warm and it helps us cook our food that we eat.There are two important elements that occur:
Changes happen when there is a difference of energy (every useful energy system has a high-energy source that powers the changes)
Energy is always transferred in the same direction: from a high-energy source (hot) to something of lower energy (cold).The Law of Conservation of Energy states that:Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be transformed from one type to another,
or passed from one object, or substance to another.Read the following examples below.
-Fully charged batteries can power a stereo; dead batteries can't. charged battery stores more energy than a dead one.
-A hot drink warms you more than a cold drink. Hot substances have higher thermal energy than cold materials.
- Catching a heavy, swift moving baseball stings more than catching a light, slow moving Ping-Pong ball. The baseball has much more energy of motion than the Ping-Pong ball .
What properties do scientist look at to know how fast an object can warm up? (heat capacity and specific heat capacity).
Scientists look at two different types of properties to now how fast an object can warm up they are Heat capacity and specific heat capacity. Heat capacity is an amount of thermal energy that warms or cools the object by one degrees Celsius. The specific heat capacity refers to the amount of heat required to cause a unit of mass (about a gram or a kilogram) to change its temperature by 1°C. Specific heat capacities of various materials, it depends on the materials the object is made of.

Chemical energy: Can be transformed into thermal energy when wood or coal is burned.
Electric energy:Electricity is produced in many ways. Hydro-electric dams use the force of gravity which pulls the water over the dam to turn turbines, which are attached to generators, which produce the electrical energy from the mechanical energy of the generators.Electricity can also be produced at thermo-electric (fuel-burning) generating stations that burn fossil fuels.
Mechanical Forces: Mechanical forces that push or pull objects often release thermal energy, as do Frictional forces.
Geothermal Energy:Volcanoes, hot springs and geysers are sources of geothermal energy - energy from the interior of the earth. The thermal energy from these events can produce hot water or steam, which can be then piped to a power plant at the surface. This can be used to run turbines which produce electrical energy. HRD (hot, dry rock) can be used as another technique to generate thermal energy. (Water is pumped into cracks in the earth's crust. It returns to the surface as steam, which can be used to generate electricity.
Solar Energy: Solar energy is clean and is guaranteed not to run out. It is not available all the time (nighttime, less in winter/ than in summer).
There are two techniques that can help to overcome these issues.

Wind Energy:Wind energy is the energy of moving air, and is a result of solar energy and convection. As the sun heats up the air, the warm air rises and cools off. The cooler air falls, creating the convection currents called thermals. These convection currents on a global basis, form the Earth's wind systems. The windmill is a turbine (a wheel with fan blades), which is connected to a generator. When the windmill spins the generator produces electricity.
More Sources of Thermal Energy
The living organisms burn food (chemical energy) in their bodies to generate body heat (thermal energy).
A composter is another source of thermal energy. Decomposers break down food and as these chemical changes occur, thermal energy is produced, which in turn helps speed up the process of decomposition.
Fossil Fuels
An energy resource is anything that can provide energy in a useful form. Most energy supplies come from fossil fuels (in Alberta and throughout the world). Fossil Fuels are chemicals from plants and other organisms that died and decomposed millions of years ago and have been preserved underground.
fossil Fuels: Two Problems
The widespread use of fossil fuels has created 2 primary problems.


What is the future of energy use?
In the future, civilization will be forced to research and develop alternative energy sources. Our current rate of fossil fuel usage will lead to an energy crisis this century. In order to survive the energy crisis many companies in the energy industry are inventing new ways to extract energy from renewable sources. While the rate of development is slow, mainstream awareness and government pressures are growing.

In the 21st century how do we as a whole beneficial energy use?Over time,how has energy use changed?
We have made good decisions about energy use, by knowing how to save energy and using it the right way, but now most people think of their wants than their needs for example in the olden days people used to ride horses or walk and also even ride their bikes but now since technology has been so advanced they buy whatever they will to they buy items that they already awn a dozen of, what i trying to say is people don't think about their needs anymore. Energy use has changed a lot over time.Example: When the light bulb was invented, not much energy was used, but as technology improved, electricity and gas are the main sources everyone uses nowadays.To increase our use of energy we should start doing things ourselves such as the laundry and we should always turn off anything that we are done using like laptops and the sink when your brushing your teeth etc. We have lived a long life with technologies but did you try without one for one day? I don't think so because for kids we want entertainment that's why about every two kids out of three atleast owns a phone, ipad, or an ipad , take a challenge and try surviving a day without one see how that goes you will now be more focused on your work :).
Particles in gases move independently and are separated by large spaces. They can vibrate,rotate and travel longer distances between collisions.Particles of gases are "more rarefied" than either liquids or solids. This means that the forces of attraction that hold them together are very weak and that the spaces between them are much larger than the spaces between solid and liquid particles. Particles of gases can move from place to place within a container bumping against the walls of the container and against other particles. They rotate and vibrate at the same time. Particles of gases have rotational, translational and vibrational energy. This explains why they can escape from a container very easily and they can put pressure on the side of the container (example a balloon or a tire).
-Particles in a liquid move freely but they are still held closely together. They can vibrate and rotate but they can only move a short distance before colliding with a nearby particle.Particles of liquids are kept together by forces of attraction that are weaker than those of solid particles. Within the walls of the container they can move from place to place bumping into the sides of the container and into other particles. This type of energy is called translational energy. This energy gives a liquid the ability to flow and be poured and to spread when a liquid is spilled. Liquid particles also have vibrational energy.
-Particles in many solids have a regular arrangement.They move by vibrating in the same spot. Particles of solids are held in place by strong electrostatic forces and are densely packed together. Particles of solids vibrate constantly due to their internal energy but they cannot move from one place to another. Particles of solids possess only vibrational energy.
How can we save energy? What are some techniques/strategies that are being developed presently?
We can save energy by:
*Decreasing the amount of heat we use
Example: When turning down your thermostat by just 1 degree, can reduce your energy by 5%. Also don't heat rooms that you are not using.
*Prevent energy loss.
Example: Using radiant barrier will reduce the radiant heat in your attic, which causes it to be cooler in hot water.
*Take advantage of energy-saving programs and technologies.
Example: Look for grants available to make your home energy efficient. Energy is so common in use that grants are becoming more available and ready.

Energy can be transferred even though there are no particles to transfer the energy. This type of energy transfer is called radiation. Radiation is the transfer of energy without any movement of matter. Energy that is transferred in this way is called radiant energy or electromagnetic radiation (EMR for short).Radiant energy travels in waves for example when someone hits a volleyball energy in their fist transferred to the ball, which transferred it to the floor. Conduction occurred, when the energy in her fist was conducted by the particles in that persons fist to the particles in the ball. The particles in the ball conducted the energy to the particles in the floor. The particles in the air were also warmed by the flight of the ball and the particles transferred this energy by convection currents which were created in the air.
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