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# The Biomechanics of Long Jump

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## Brooke Payne

on 15 March 2014

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#### Transcript of The Biomechanics of Long Jump

The Biomechanics of Long Jump
"Biomechanics is the study of the body as a machine. This study analyses the internal and external forces which act on the body and the movements that these forces produce." (Oxford University Press, 2010)
Focus Areas:
How Biomechanics applies to Long Jump
Factors connected to Biomechanics which improves performance
The Landing
Main focus is to overcome angular momentum
The Flight
The Run-Up
The Take-off
Transformation of horizontal to vertical velocity occurs
Jumper leaves the ground at an optimal angle of 45ᵒ
However, this can alter due to factors such as height and mass
The Four Phases of Long Jump
Entry Phase:
Rhythm is created to build speed
Central Phase:
Optimum horizontal velocity is reached
Preparation for Take-off Phase:
Last 2-3 strides are 25cm longer
Sail Technique
(Mac, 2014)
Hitch-Kick Technique
(Mac, 2014)
Stride Technique
(Mac, 2014)
Hang Technique
(Mac, 2014)
There is a direct relationship between long jump and Newton's Laws of Motion
Newton's 1st Law ~ Inertia
Newton's 2nd Law ~
Acceleration
"Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object)." (Laube, 2013)
Newton's 3rd Law ~ Action and Reaction
"For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction." (Laube, 2013)
Newton's Laws of Motion
"An object will stay at rest or continue to move with angular velocity unless acted upon by an external force." (Laube, 2013)
(Oxford University Press, 2010)
(Oxford University Press, 2010)
Week 2
Week 4
Overall Comparison
Week 6-7
Week 1
Week 1 Analysis
Week 2 Analysis
Week 4 Analysis
Week 6-7 Analysis
Overall Comparison
Timeline of Long Jump Analysis and Progression
Factors connected to Biomechanics which improve performance
Common Biomechanical Errors Associated with Long Jump
Centre of Mass
Line of Gravity
Base of Support
Deceleration at take-off
Stepping behind the board
Stepping over the board
Low-trajectory flight
Falling backwards into the pit
The most common Biomechanical Errors include:
Skills needed to be a successful Long Jumper
Speed
Speed Endurance
Flexibility
Strength
Angle of 45ᵒ
Angle of 74ᵒ
Moment of Torque and Angular Rotation
Stride Jump
Improved Arm rotation
Decreased Take-off Angle
Improved Jump Length:
Week 1 - Take-off Angle: 58ᵒ
Week 7 - Take-off Angle: 48ᵒ
Week 1
Week 7
3.1m in week 1
3.55m in week 7
Full transcript