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The Holy Grail
Transcript of The Holy Grail
a dish, plate, stone, or cup that is part of an important theme of Arthurian literature.
Perceval, le Conte du Graal (The Story of the Grail) by Chrétien de Troyes
Earliest and most influential of all Grail texts
Work of Robert de Boron that the Grail truly became the "Holy Grail" and familiar to most readers
Appears in the Mabinogion tale of Culhwch and Olwen
Particularly well-known is the story of the Preiddeu Annwfn or "Spoils of the Otherworld" as recounted by Taliesin
At the Court of King Arthur, it was prophesied that the Grail would one day be rediscovered by a descendant of St. Joseph: the best knight in the land
Galahad, son of Lancelot
The Knights of the Round Table crossed Britain from one end to another in their search
Perceval discovered the castle in a land that was sickly like its spear-wounded King, "Fisher" or "Grail King"
Lancelot next reached Corbenic; prevented from entering because of he was an adulterer
Galahad arrived. He was permitted to enter the Grail Chapel and allowed to see the great cup. His life became complete; grail and man were lifted up to heaven.
Entertained by King, forgot to ask of the grail and left empty-hand.
From Christ to disciples to drink from at the Last Supper
Later given to his grand-uncle, St. Joseph of Arimathea - collected Christ's blood and sweat while he hung upon the Cross
Said to be the cup of the Last Supper and at the Crucifixion to have received blood flowing from Christ's side.
Brought to Britain by Joseph of Arimathea - lay hidden for centuries
No specific builder named
12th and early 13th century Wolfram von Eschenbach
makes the grail a great precious stone that fell from the sky
First mentioned from 1135 and 1190 in Perceval, the story of the Grail romance of Chrétien de Troyes.
The Spaniards — Margarita Torres and José Ortega del Río — believe the 2,000-year-old vessel is in a church in León in northern Spain
Focus on its symbolism - the cup is a symbol of Jesus’ body or essence
The wine - blood of Christ; poured out at his death as the ultimate sacrifice for humanity
Holy Grail presented as a gateway to immortality; means of securing eternal life for those who “drink” it
Cups claimed to be Grail in several churches
Saint Mary of Valencia Cathedral - contains an artifact
Valencia Chalice - taken by Saiint Peter to Rome in the 1st century
Huesca in Spain - Saint Lawrence in the 3rd century
In Wolfram von Eschenbach's telling, the Grail was kept safe at the castle of Munsalvaesche (mons salvationis), entrusted to Titurel, the first Grail King.
According to legend
The monastery of San Juan de la Peña, in the province of Huesca, Spain, protected the chalice of the Last Supper from the Islamic invaders of the Iberian Peninsula
Antonio Beltrán says the artifact is a 1st-century Middle Eastern stone vessel
Official papal chalice for many popes - used by many others, most recently by Pope Benedict XVI
Joseph of Arimathea
Period 5, English 2 Honors
14 September 2014