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Surveying British Literature
Transcript of Surveying British Literature
Of courtliness, and stately manners here,
And would be held worthy of reverence. A Geographical Timeline An Overview of British Liturature By Lucy, Thomas, and Emma
HBL G Block Final Project ”In 1890 Stoker holidayed in the North-east coast fishing village of Whitby in Yorkshire, where it is said he gleaned much inspiration for his novel Dracula.” - The Liturature Network (http://www.online-literature.com/stoker/) The Time Machine by H. G. Wells 1895 victorian period H. G. Wells grew up in Bromley, Kent, south-east of London. At a young age he broke his leg and began to spend many hours secretly reading books from the local library. Dracula by Bram Stoker 1897 Victorian Period Beowulf author unknown, translation
by Seamus Heaney approximately 7th Century Old English Period "Then one of them suddenly asked me a question that showed him to be on the intellectual level of one of our five-year-old children—asked me, in fact, if I had come from the sun in a thunderstorm! It let loose the judgment I had suspended upon their clothes, their frail light limbs, and fragile features. A flow of disappointment rushed across my mind. For a moment I felt that I had built the Time Machine in vain" (Wells, 21). William Shakespeare pre-
1597 between 1596
and 1599 between 1603
and 1606 English Renaissance London Although Shakespeare spent about seven years living and working in London, he was born in and retired to Stratford-upon-Avon. Frankenstein By Mary Shelley 1818 Mary Shelley, who grew up in London, traveled to Geneva at age 18. At Lord Bryon's house in Geneva, Mary received her inspiration for the novel Frankenstein in a dream: “I saw the pale student of unhallowed arts kneeling beside the thing he had put together. I saw the hideous phantasm of a man stretched out, and then, on the working of some powerful engine, show signs of life, and stir with an uneasy, half vital motion. Frightful must it be; for supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavour to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world."
-Mary Shelley (introduction to her third edition) “Slave, I before reasoned with you, but you have proved yourself unworthy of my condescension. Remember that I have power; you believe yourself miserable, but I can make you so wretched that the light of day will be hateful to you. You are my creator, but I am your master;--obey!” Romantic Period Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen 1813 Romantic Period "It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. However little known the feelings or views of such a man may be on his first entering a neighbourhood, this truth is so well fixed in the minds of the surrounding families, that he is considered the rightful property of some one or other of their daughters." Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte 1847 Romantic Period "It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff now; so he shall never know how I love him: and that, not because he's handsome, Nelly, but because he's more myself than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same; and Linton's is as different as a moonbeam from lightning, or frost from fire." -http://www.anglik.net/wells.htm Although the exact author of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is unknown, it may have been written by the "Pearl Poet" who probably lived in the area around Cheshire and Straffordshire. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight middle English period date unknown, most likely in the late 14th century Emily Bronte grew up and spent most of her life in Bradshaw, where she got the inspiration for the Moors described in Wuthering Heights. "Not only was the ship burial (which dates to 625AD) uncannily like the burials of Scyld and Beowulf, but the grave goods revealed the East Anglian court of the Wuffingas to be unexpectedly sophisticated and closely linked to the Swedish royal house at Uppsala. It is now thought possible that both these royal lines shared a common ancestry." -Angelcynn's "Historical Background to Beowulf" http://bestoflegends.org/beowulf/index.html The author and even the date of Beowulf is unknown, but there is evidence to suggest that Beowulf was written in a region called East Anglia. "Then one of them suddenly asked me a question that showed him to be on the intellectual level of one of our five-year-old children—asked me, in fact, if I had come from the sun in a thunderstorm! It let loose the judgment I had suspended upon their clothes, their frail light limbs, and fragile features. A flow of disappointment rushed across my mind. For a moment I felt that I had built the Time Machine in vain" (Wells, 21). "The Time Machine" is a reflection on Wells's time using the new idea of social Darwinism to look at the class structure of industrial England. So. The Spear-Danes in days gone by
and the kings who ruled them had courage and greatness.
We have heard of those princes’ heroic campaigns.
a wrecker of mead-benches, rampaging among foes.
This terror of the hall-troops had come far.
A foundling to start with, he would flourish later on
as his powers waxed and his worth was proved.
In the end each clan on the outlying coasts
beyond the whale-road had to yield to him
and began to pay tribute. That was one good king.
- Seamus Heaney's translation, lines 1-11 The Canterbury Tales Paradise Lost William Blake poetry includes: The Clod and the Pebble The Tyger The Sick Rose The Fly Little Lamb, Who Made Thee William Blake lived and stayed in London for almost his entire life. He published "Songs of Innocence" in 1789 and "Songs of Experience" in 1794. O Rose, thou art sick!
The invisible worm
That flies in the night,
In the howling storm,
Has found out thy bed
Of crimson joy:
And his dark secret love
Does thy life destroy. Come, you spirits
That tend on mortal thoughts! unsex me here,
And fill me from the crown to the toe, top-full
Of direst cruelty; make thick my blood,
Stop up the access and passage to remorse,
That no compunctious visitings of nature
Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between
The effect and it! Come to my woman's breasts,
And take my milk for gall, you murdering ministers,
Wherever in your sightless substances
You wait on nature's mischief!
-Lady Macbeth, Act I, scene V Harry Potter By J.K. Rowling J.K. Rowling starting writing the first Harry Potter novel in the Elephant House Cafe in Edinburgh. Jane Austen was living in Southampton with her family at the time Pride and Prejudice was written. "'My revenge is just begun! I spread it over centuries, and time is on my side. Your girls that you all love are mine already; and through them you and others shall yet be mine - my creatures, to do my bidding and to be my jackals when I want to feed.'" "From this point forth, we shall be leaving the firm foundation of fact and journeying together through the murky marshes of memory into thickets of wildest guesswork." There was Shield Sheafson, scourge of many tribes, "Beowulf" is concerned with the characteristics of what makes someone a good leader. It deals with the politics of power and the role of glory and might in military culture. It demonstrates the foundational culture of all of British Literature. The many spondees and caesuras, making reading slow. Lines are "hemistiched" together and usually contain an alliteration. end of the By Goeffrey Chaucer 14th century Middle English Period Chaucer lived in London for most of his life (although hespent the last 15 years of his life to the southeast of London in Kent) and worked for the government and the civil service in a wide array of jobs. Chaucer's tale reflects on the changes occuring in his society as the traditional social order of kingdoms and serfs is being replaced with a more complex one which includes artisans and other middle class members. - Chaucer, lines 139-141 of the General Prologue Chaucer uses satire throught his work, particularly in a social sense. To distant shrines well known in sundry lands.
And specially from every shire's end
Of England they to Canterbury went,
The holy blessed martyr there to seek - Chaucer, lines 14-17 of the General Prologue The Canterbury tales obviously has a religious theme, focusing on what is 'enough' to be considered a religious or holy person and what motivates this. Jane Austen explores the themes of society and class in relation to marriage by John Milton John Milton was born and retired to London, after attending Cambridge University. Paradise Lost was written around and was first published in and again in . 1657 Austen's description of societal concerns of her time also illustrates the foolishness and folly many of those without a developed sense of pride undertake 1667 1674 Restoration Period Austen also describes the difference between love and marriage The Sick Rose Lady Macbeth sees her femininity as a barrier to overcome Lady Macbeth and Macbeth's ambition is the driving force behind the events in the play Emily Bronte explores both the destructiveness of love, and love's ability to withstand anything. She was in pains to imitate the cheer
Of courtliness, and stately manners here,
And would be held worthy of reverence. Bronte also illustrates the precariousness of social class in society at the time Percy Bysshe Shelley In Dracula, Stoker describes the danger of female sexual expression Born in 1792 in West Sussex, Shelley was a major Romantic poet, famous for his works including the sonnet Ozymandias.
His wife was the remarkable Mary Shelley, famous for writing Frankenstein. "My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"
Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away. He also describes the dangers of modernity and significance of time John Keats Keats was born in 1795 in London. Along with Byron and Shelley, he is considered an essential figure of Romantic poetry. THOU still unravish'd bride of quietness,
Thou foster-child of Silence and slow Time,
Sylvan historian, who canst thus express
A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:
What leaf-fringed legend haunts about thy shape
Of deities or mortals, or of both,
In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?
What men or gods are these? What maidens loth?
What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape?
What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy? The idea of fate verses choice also comes up repeatedly in the play. Lord Byron Supernatural themes are spread throughout "Macbeth" including the weird sisters and, for example, the mention of "spirits" in this passage. Lord Byron, the archtypical romantic, was born in 1788 in Scotland. Part of the 'trinity' of romanticism, along with Shelley and Keats, he was also famous for his voyages into the Mediteranean region. Ironically, while he is regarded as a figurehead of romanticism, he disliked the poetry of Wordsworth and Coleridge. His most significant work was Don Juan, an epic almost as significant as Paradise Lost. His work, including Don Juan, was often satiric in nature. SHE walks in beauty, like the night
Of cloudless climes and starry skies;
And all that 's best of dark and bright
Meet in her aspect and her eyes:
Thus mellow'd to that tender light
Which heaven to gaudy day denies.
One shade the more, one ray the less,
Had half impair'd the nameless grace
Which waves in every raven tress,
Or softly lightens o'er her face;
Where thoughts serenely sweet express
How pure, how dear their dwelling-place. So what is British Literature as a whole? Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge This momentous piece of literature marked the beginning of the Romantic Period in literature. Lyrical Ballads represented a turning point in British Literature, as the authors used eveyrday language and subject matter to make their work more accessible to all classes. Many fundamental differences are noticable in the romantic works after Lyrical Ballads. And now there came both mist and snow,
And it grew wondrous cold:
And ice, mast-high, came floating by,
As green as emerald.
And through the drifts the snowy clifts
Did send a dismal sheen:
Nor shapes of men nor beasts we ken -
The ice was all between.
The ice was here, the ice was there,
The ice was all around:
It cracked and growled, and roared and howled,
Like noises in a swound! Coleridge wrote: Wordsworth wrote: The majority of the following poems are to be considered as experiments. They were written chiefly with a view to ascertain how far the language of conversation in the middle and lower classes of society is adapted to the purpose of poetic pleasure. Five years have past; five summers, with the length
Of five long winters! and again I hear
These waters, rolling from their mountain-springs
With a sweet inland murmur.*—Once again
Do I behold these steep and lofty cliffs,
Which on a wild secluded scene impress
Thoughts of more deep seclusion; and connect
The landscape with the quiet of the sky. The Rime of the Ancienc Mariner Tintern Abbey We can zoom in and see each individual work.... Or we can look at the whole map at once! British Literature, from Beowulf to Mrs. Dalloway, is both a collection of disparate works of writing, and a grand synthesis of them all. Each work has a metaphorical conversation with the other works, both past and future. For example, this connection is evident across the two major epic, Beowulf and Paradise Lost. Each deals with how christianity functions in their respective culture. Today, John Keats is famous, especicially for his Odes. You just read from his "Ode on a Grecian Urn." However, in his day, Keats was little known and little respected. Keats, although he died young, at 25, was associated with both older and newer Romantics, although he disliked the work of Wordsworth and Coleridge. Blake's genius was not respected during his liftime; his contemporaries often thought he was insane for his unique style. His work is difficult to classify as solely Romantic. He often criticized established religion, as in his prose work, "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell," which was a reaction to the French Revolution. Besides poetry and prose, Blake also painted, although he is not as known for this today. In Frankenstein, Mary Shelley explores the true meaning of monstronsity Of Man’s First Disobedience, and the Fruit
Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal taste
Brought Death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful
Seat, Sing Heav’nly Muse, that on the secret top
Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen
Seed, In the Beginning how the Heav’ns and Earth
Rose out of Chaos: Or if Sion Hill
Delight thee more, and Siloa’s Brook that flow’d
Fast by the Oracle of God; I thence
Invoke thy aid to my advent’rous Song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above th’ Aonian Mount, while it pursues
Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhyme.
(I.1–26) During his life, Shelley's work was rather controversial. However, he was idolized by the next generations of poets. His political views inspired people such as Karl Marx, Oscar Wilde, Henry David Thoreau, and Mohandas Ghandi. His short works, including Ozymandias, are his most loved, by Shelley also wrote some large-scale works, including Queen Mab and Alastor. Hah! Is this Arthur's house, hailed
Across the world, the fabled court?
Where have your conquests gone to, and your pride,
Where is your anger, and those awesome boasts?
And now the round table's fame and its feasting
Are done, thrown down at the sound of one man's
Words - and you sit there shaking - at words!'
And he laughed so loud that Arthur winced,
His fair face flooded hot with shame,
And his cheeks;
He flared as angry as wind,
And all his people
Burned." Part 1, lines 309-322 The power of revenge is also a key theme SGGK is best known for both its complexity of language and its large use of symbolism. For example, the Green Knight may be an allusion to either Christ or the Green Man, a traditional deity made of leaves and vegetation. The poem's complexity is testified by the fact that there are radically different interpretations, some taking a Christian point of view, others feminist, others political. This poem, written in the 1650s and 1660s, is about the christian story of the fall of mankind. It takes the themes of power, found in previous works, makes them more relevant, more real, and more significant, in attaching to the foundation of British religious culture. The work's significance is evidenced by the fact that it is generally considered one of the greatest works of the English language, second only to some by Shakespeare. Class comes up in this play both as an issue between characters and a differing manner of speech. Besides class, the character's family relations are also a common theme which both divides and connects Shakespeare's characters. Nay,
I’ll have a starling shall be taught to speak
Nothing but “Mortimer,” and give it him
To keep his anger still in motion.
-1.3.222-225 So shaken as we are, so wan with care,
Find we a time for frighted peace to pant
-1.1.1-2 Peace and warfare is another common motif
in this play. Our house, my sovereign liege, little deserves
The scourge of greatness to be used on it;
And that same greatness too which our own hands
Have holp to make so portly.
-1.3.10-13 Additionally, Shakespeare draws in the role of honor and the rights to power into this play. Like in "Henry IV part 1" this play is full of war, peace, and family ties. However, Shakespeare also introduces the theme of weakeness especially in the beginning of his play, such as in the form of disease and other physical weakenesses. the water itself was a good healthy
water; but, for the party that owed it, he might
have more diseases than he knew for.
-1.2.2-4 The theme of time has also been present since part 1 especially in the ironic way that Falstaff refers to his youth, as is addressed here. Do you set down your name in the scroll of youth,
that are written down old with all the characters of
age? Have you not a moist eye? a dry hand? a
yellow cheek? a white beard? a decreasing leg? an
increasing belly? is not your voice broken? your
wind short? your chin double? your wit single? and
every part about you blasted with antiquity? and
will you yet call yourself young? Fie, fie, fie, Sir John!
-Act 1 Scene 2 Not surprisingly, science and technology are reoccuring themes throughout this novel. Wells also uses change and the passage of time to shock and impress readers. Another theme which Wells brings into this work is the relationship between the Earth and its inhabitants. Besides connections in individual works, their are eternal themes that permeate every work in the body of British Literature. Consistently, authors have written about power relationships, how they are acheived in the culture of the time, how they represent the status quo, and how they should or should not be changed. Techniques have changed, from the poetic forms of Beowulf and the Canterbury tales, to the modern "Stream of Consciousness" of Woolf. However, the essential elements of what authors write about are remarkably similar. Throughout this course, we have all become attached to various works. Some of us like the writing of Jane Austen the best, while others of us are the biggest fans of Virginia Woolf. Each of these works individually, however, is part of the greater whole of British Literature. The map of British Literature contains a place for all of these elements, because of how they comment on and interact with other works of the canon. Various analogies may be offered for the structure of British Literature, such as a tree or a human body, but in the authors' opinions, a map is the best. Each work forms an integral part of the whole landmass, but the specific relationships of each work to the others, and to the canon, is left up to individual interpretation. Thank you for watching our project, and experiencing our interpretation of British Literature.
Emma, Lucy, and Thomas of G Block HBL Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf Virginia Woolf was raised and educated in her parents' home in Kensington, London. Her father was a prominant editor and was considerably well connected. When she was younger, Woolf's family traveled to Cornwall every summer, a tradition which influenced much of her writing; however, this is less evident in "Mrs. Dalloway" than in some of her other works. 1925 Modernism “Seriously and solemnly Richard Dalloway got on his hind legs and said that no decent man ought to read Shakespeare’s sonnets because it was like listening at keyholes” (75). The question of privacy appears many times in this novel, specifically, how secretive should people be allowed to be. Woolf contrasts that question to her work itself; "Mrs. Dalloway" is writen from the thoughts of the characters. Woolf was well read and her father belonged to an important literary circle. This element of her education shows up again and again in her novel as she alludes to many greats of British Literature. “Why, after all, did she go to these things? Why seek pinnacles and stand drenched in fire? Might it consume her anyhow!” (167). The themes of passing time and the horror of death are also important to Woolf's novel and are seen throughout the work in the thoughts and dialogue of several different characters. The End