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The Civil War

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Bryan Greene

on 4 December 2018

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Transcript of The Civil War

The Civil War
Following the election of President Lincoln in 1860, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Other southern states followed. When Lincoln sent federal troops into SC to reinforce Fort Sumter, South Carolina troops fired on the fort, starting the Civil War.
THE CIVIL WAR BEGINS

The Union had advantages in manpower, industry, food production, railroads, and political leadership.
The Confederacy had advantages in cotton profits, capable generals, a strong military tradition, and they were fighting a defensive war.
Fort Sumter
- Head of Union forces- MAJ Robert Anderson
- Head of Confederate forces- GEN PGT Beauregard
- Outcome- Confederate victory
- Important Facts- First battle of the Civil War
- Led Lincoln to mobilize troops
First Bull Run/ First Manasses
- Head of Union forces- GEN Irvin McDowell
- Head of Confederate forces- GEN Thomas
"Stonewall" Jackson
- Outcome- Confederate victory
- Important Facts- Inexperienced troops on both
sides
GEN Jackson earned the nickname "Stonewell"
Battle of Shiloh/ Battle of Pittsburgh Landing
- Head of Union forces- GEN Ulysses S. Grant
- Head of Confederate forces- GEN PGT
Beauregard and GEN Albert S. Johnston
- Outcome- Union victory/ draw
- Important Facts- Showed that the Union's strategy
to take the Mississippi might succeed.
Showed the war could be deadly.
The Union's plan was the Anaconda Plan, designed to squeeze the life out of the Confederacy, and comprised of a three-prong attack.
1. Blockade southern ports on the Atlantic coast to restrict foreign trade.
2. Take control of the Mississippi river to split the Confederacy and restrict domestic trade.
3. Capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, VA, 90 miles from Washington, DC.
Battle of Antietam
- Head of Union forces- GEN George McClellan
- Head of Confederate forces- GEN Robert E. Lee
- Outcome- Union victory/ draw
- Important Facts- Bloodiest single day battle in US
History.
The Confederacy lost 25% of their men.
THE POLITICS OF WAR

The Confederacy had hoped that the need for cotton would attract European support.
Great Britain had little need for Southern cotton, since if possessed a large cotton inventory and had found new sources of raw cotton. The failure of the English wheat crop made Northern wheat an essential import. British popular opinion opposed slavery, especially after the Emancipation Proclamation...

Great Britain remains neutral.
As a result of Lincoln's desire to win the war, the need to discourage Britain from supporting the Confederacy, and the need to harm the Confederate war effort...

Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation.
Because of disloyalty and dissent among Confederate sympathizers in Maryland and the need to protect the Union Army from Confederate sympathizers...

Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in the state of Maryland.
Due to heavy casualties and massive desertions and the need to win the war...

Both the Union and Confederate governments pass draft laws.
A draft law was passed favoring and protecting the wealthy. Lower- class white workers were angered about having to fight a war to free slaves who, they believed, would then take over their jobs. Low wages, bad living conditions, and high unemployment among the lower class stirred up a mob mentality, and racism...

In 1863, a riot breaks out in New York City.
LIFE DURING WARTIME

Southern slaves experienced greater freedom and were more willing to refuse work and sabatage plantations. Some fought as Confederate soldiers.
The southern economy experienced shortages of food and other basic goods, rampant inflation, food riots, and smuggling.

The northern economy benefited from an industrial boom giving many businesses huge profits, and women began to enter the work force in larger numbers. However, there was a drop in the standard of living as wages and working conditions did not improve and the Union experienced inflation as well.
Soldiers on both sides had filthy surroundings, a limited diet, inadequate health care, and the risk of death through injury or disease on battlefields, in camps, or in prison camps.

African American soldiers in the north faced discrimination, segregation, lower pay, and a high mortality rate.
White women in the North and in the South took on more responsibility in the absence of men in factories and on the farms. They also served as nurses and worked in hospitals.

Taxation in the North increased with the implementation of income taxes.
Health care was limited due to lack of medical knowledge of hygiene. The US Sanitary Commission was set up to improve the hygienic conditions of camps and recruit and train nurses.
1863- Battle of Chancellorsville
The Confederates won the battle but lost Stonewall Jackson when he was accidentally shot by a Confederate soldier.
1863- Battle of Gettysburg
Gettysburg is considered the turning point of the war because it crippled the Confederacy so badly that it would never recover from the loss and forced Lee to give up hopes of winning a battle in the North.
1863- Battle of Vicksburg and the Siege of Port Hudson.
The Union victory split the Confederacy in two and gave the Union control of the Mississippi River, accomplishing part of the Anaconda Plan.
1863- Gettysburg Address
Abraham Lincoln used the term the "United States is" rather than the "United States are", helping Americans to realize that the US was one nation, not just a collection of states.
1864- Grant is appointed commander of all Union armies.
Grant's strategy was to destroy Lee's Army in Virginia while Sherman raided Georgia.
Grant wanted to attack Lee constantly and engage in total war.
1864- Sherman's march from Atlanta to the sea
Sherman's goal was to destroy Southerner's will to fight.
He engaged in total war, destroying civilian property and living off the land.

1864- Lincoln is reelected.
1864- Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House.
Lee's soldiers are paroled and sent home with their personal possessions, horses, and food rations and officers were allowed to keep their sidearms.
Lincoln did not want a vindictive peace.
THE LEGACY OF THE WAR

...on political life
Serious secessionist threats never used again and the power of the federal government was increased.
... on the nation's economy.
Business helped by various measures taken by the federal government. Some industries declined while others flourished. There were more opportunities for entrepreneurs. The economy in most northern states boomed while the southern states were devastated as most of the industry, railroads, and agricultural means were destroyed.
... on soldiers and civilians.
About 350,000 Union soldiers were killed and another 275,000 were wounded. About 260,000 Confederate soldiers were killed and another 260, 000 were wounded. The course millions of lives were interrupted by the war.
... on military tactics and weapons.
Rifles and minie balls made war deadlier and rendered massed assaults on fortified positions ineffective. Cavalry became outmoded and total war and trench warfare were seen to be effective. Hand grenades, land mines, and ironclad were used for the first time.
... on African Americans
Slavery is abolished by the Thirteenth amendment but they still faced social and political discrimination.
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