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Transcript of WOD PLY
PITH = 6 WORD SUMMERY OF MAIN IDEA
Write down what you want to say, then find the two or three key words that sum up your points. Use these words in a fabulous new sentence.
STEAL TECHNIQUE NOT WORD
SOURCE OF SLANG INFO -
1.interviews or recordings made by people from the area, 2. Literature from the region, 3.phone call and talk to a local 4. RECORD & listen to conversations in your own neighborhood. give your fictitious expressions a hint of authenticity, though the phrases themselves are unique. FOR FICTITIOUS CHAR.
DICTION & SLANG- UNIQUE/INDIVIDUAL WORDS
similar instruments playing similar notes = dull BUT good quality of your dialogue depends on a combination of unique voices singing different tunes. It Refers to a character’s distinct choice and use of words. Factors determining this vocabulary include the character’s education, profession, geographic location, and overriding emotional state. DICTION UNDERSTANDING = NEW LANGUAGE since LISTEN FRESH FOR LANG. VARIATION. Utilizing slang when necessary lends credibility to both your characters and their environments.
(UNIQUE VOICE & WORD CHOICE)
1.EDUCATION 3 TYPE (may overlap, duality of language makes characters mysterious and compelling . Matt Damon’s character in Good Will Hunting has a blue-collar, poverty-stricken background, a gradeschool education, and the intelligence of a Rhodes scholar. He can maintain a conversation with his working-class Boston friends and college physicists alike. The switch from one diction to another keeps the audience and other characters on their toes.) - # 1. Academic - literature buff, the math whiz, and the aeronautical engineer these people express themselves in diverse ways. Lack of education = one or two syllable words, limited vocabulary, and incorrect grammar # 2 - Intuitive: instinctual intelligence & lessons learnt from life. Reporters, detectives, and responsible parents demonstrate this strength to uncover the crime, BUT characters in horror films become the victims of one. # 3. Acquired : “survival sense.” choose their words carefully, Street Smart, since aware of the effect. Eg. Mafia.
2.PROFESSION = (KNOW JARGON OF PROFESSION OF CHAR) JARGON reveals his LINE OF WORK & meant to START your character’s dialogue since Every occupation comes with a list of terms and phrases learned on the job or required to do the job. “If a job affects your point of view, it probably affects your diction, too.” color their views the world & therefore how they express views ie. say, opinions, and beliefs. # Over-reliance on jargon may rob characters of their distinct voices MAKING THEM STEREOTYPE. However, screenwriting is not life, it’s art. Writers choose professions for their characters for a reason to help define behavior and personality. If you’re not familiar with the necessary terms, if you don’t employ them when required, audiences may dismiss your characters as phony or incomplete.Eg........ # WRITER = speak in metaphors or have a highly developed vocabulary........ # POLITICIANS = speak in triumphant yet noncommittal phrases to avoid offending voters. SPECIFIC PROFESSION JARGON = SPECIALIZED or TECHNICAL LANGUAGE or TERMINOLOGY. EG.......... # WAITER : “The usual,” “He’s a regular,” “cup of joe,” “table four,” “order up,” “stiffed the tip,” “over-easy or sunny side up,” “soup du jour,” “straight-up or on the rocks”.......... # ACTOR = “upstaged,” “on cue,” “heads up,” “black-list,” “hit your mark,” “from the top,” “ingénue,” “blocking,” to “go up” on your lines, “curtain,” “flies,” “wing space,” “apron,” “understudy,” “dark night,” “talent on the set,” “slate”.......... # LAWYER = “verdict,” “approach the bench,” “plea bargain,” “manslaughter,” “assault and battery,” “hung jury,” “beat the rap,” “the jury will disregard,” “stricken from the record,” “take the stand,” “pro bono,” “objection.” .........# POLICE = "yes Sir", "file it", "open and shut case", "case FIR"........# DOCTOR
3.GEOGRAPHIC/CULTURE =(SLANG, phrases peculiar to that group of people) Bihari Hindi, Mumbaia Hindi, Bengali Hindi etc. (parenthetical such as (speaks with a Southern drawl) below the character’s name.)
4. OVERRIDING EMOTIONAL STATE/DEFAULT STATE OF MIND - one emotional state that they return to in between dramatic events.default state of mind, and it certainly affects how they communicate.(one of Nav Ras ) - # 1. Anger (curse their way through life. David Mamet’s characters capitalize on this colorful, albeit potentially offensive, language time and again)....... # 2. Fear/Cautious ( say little, and when they do speak, they use carefully chosen neutral words.) ..... # 3. Hope ........ # 4. Wonder ...... # 5. Joy......... # 6. Greed ........... # 7. Romance/Artistic/Vibrant (Artistic or particularly vibrant personalities may use words that call up images of Grandeur. Norma Desmond of Sunset Boulevard fame was one such character; Orson Welles himself was another. Revolutionaries and politicians share this tendency, which is why many speeches include image-based metaphors like “a bridge to the future,” “soar like the eagle,” or “smoke the enemy out of his hole.”)......# 8. Disgust......... # 9. Sad........
5.ALTERING VOCABULARY REASONS v/s BASE DICTION - IMPRESS or BLEND IN (In many situations, your characters will assume a vocabulary that they don’t usually employ. OR as Carolyn does in American Beauty, they want to impress someone whom they admire. Maybe they do so out of a desire to fit in, as Shannon Dougherty does in Heathers. Whatever your character’s reasons for altering her vocabulary, knowing what base diction she’ll return to when the façade deteriorates is helpful to you as writer.)
6. SOUND OF VOICE
7. INTROVERT or EXTROVERT (HOW OFTEN SHE SPEAKS. Does she enjoy hearing herself talk, or is she deathly afraid of exposing herself that way. Who is she comfortable speaking to, and who makes her nervous?)
8. HIGH, LOW & MIDDLE Neutral DICTION STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY & WORDS CHOICE (CONVERT NEUTRAL DICTION WORD TO HIGH & LOW TO GIVE IT A CHARACTER) (word’s STRUCTURAL DEGREE OF COMPLEXITY & Word Choice - A CHAR MAY USE DELEBRATEDLY DIFF. DICTION IN DIFF SPACE FOR REASON, SPELLING certain words to read the way I hear them DISTINGUISH HIGH & LOW DICTION - Good Will Hunting, Matt Damon in a classroom setting, he uses high diction, surprising university professors, award-winning theorists, and possibly the audience.) -- Bear in mind that a character’s level of diction isn’t always an indication of true intelligence, prestige, or profession. The wisest person in the room may be the working-class servant, -- Words, like people, can be classified into groups: 1. High diction, 2. low diction, 3. Middle Neutral Diction based on education, profession, and upbringing, financial position, social status, political power, social influence, physical appearance.Most people speak with a combination of dictions, called middle diction. Middle diction is a more common way of speaking, but it doesn’t jump off the page or the screen as readily as high and low diction. If you want an IMMEDIATELY DISTINCT CHAR VOICE, a character I can identify with my eyes closed, U SHOULD USE HIGH or LOW DICTION. If you have a clear understanding of the weight and scope of each word, you’ll craft unique voices.................... # 1. HIGH DICTION (The prince/privileged lifestyle/USED WITH REASON - multisyllabic, technically verbose, or ornate & COMPLEX STRUCTURE in style. They r like carefully chosen phrases of the elite, the academic flourishes of a professor, and the technical jargon of a lawyer or renowned physicist. BUT they may also come from an unlikely source LIKE A CHAR IN A CERTAIN PLACE USES DIFF. DICTION ) EG. “I have just completed the most tremendous novella. You simply must peruse it when you have a moment to spare; it is undeniably compelling and persuasive.” (words “novella,” “peruse,” and “persuasive” suggest character. Most people Won’t speak this way today, so if your story takes place now, this character will most definitely stand out. Perhaps your character spent her childhood obsessed with language; perhaps she enjoys showing off her verbal prowess or likes to hear herself speak. There are innumerable reasons for choosing high diction, and it’s worth picking up a dictionary just to have these words at your disposal.)..............................# 2. LOW DICTION- ( strictly functional; gets the job done with little or no flourish. Little schooling or may not care to draw attention to what schooling they’ve had. Hold unpretentious, clerical jobs. speak with direct, monosyllabic words and without artifice. rarely concerned with grammatical precision and tends torely heavily on slang. Low diction is often associated with street language, for this reason. It’s not a language picked up in school BUT friends, family learnt - EG. “Hey. Cut that out. You gonna talk to me ’cause I ain’t got all day. You best say what you have to say, man. I’ve got places to be, you dig?” - NOTICE I AM SPELLING certain words to read the way I hear them)..................# 3. MIDDLE Neutral DICTION (hard to distinguish my education, profession, or socio-economic standing from that sentence.) EG. “You know, I just finished a book that you have to read. It was great.”
TYPE OF DICTION
WAYS TO CREATE
A. ADD WORDS Eg. “totally” may become an adverb for all seasons/ She was like “you should totally do this,” and I was all “you totally know I just can’t.”
B. ABBREVIATE WORDS Eg. “don and arond” instead of “down and around”
C. DROP WORDS from sentences entirely EG. “yins” instead of “you guys.”
D. END SENTENCE MANNERISMS - Eg. with “eh?”
E. REPLACE - Eg. “like” or “all” may replace the verb “to say,”
2.EXPLETIVE ie. SYNTACTIC EXPLETIVE, EXPLETIVE ATTRIBUTUES, PROFANITY =TO INDIVIDUALIZE DIALOGUE & EXTRA WORDS NOT ADDING MEANING BUT express emotions without word meaning anything - exclamation or oath, especially one that is profane, vulgar, or obscene
3 TYPES - #1 -SYNTACTIC EXPLETIVE, a word that performs a syntactic role but contributes nothing to meaning - # 2. EXPLETIVE ATTRIBUTUES - a word that contributes nothing to meaning but suggests the strength of feeling of the speaker ... # 3. PROFANITY a show of disrespect, or a desecration or debasement of someone or something Swear words, Exclaimation Words or Expletives are words or phrases that do not add any structural or grammatical meaning to the sentence. These words and phrases are often referred to as empty words, meaningless phrases, or redundant pairs because they do not add any information to the sentence. Instead, these words simply take up space, making sentences unnecessarily wordier.
1. EMPTY WORDS - (actually, really, various, virtually, basically, generally, practically, specific, particular, truly, clearly, obviously, or undoubtedly.) Obviously/undoubtedly If the point is obvious, why write it? - OR - Clearly/truly A point should be clear or true without the writer assuring the reader that it is.
2. MEANINGLESS PHRASE- (in my opinion, it is important that, it is necessary, kind of, sort of, type of, a lot of) in my opinion As the author of the paper, the reader already knows it is the writer’s opinion. -- OR -- it is important that What comes after the “that” in the sentence should stress its importance without this opening phrase. Let ideas stand on their own merit.
3. REDUNDANT PAIR - (BOTH WORDS HAVE SAME MEANING) - (final outcome, past history, free gift, sudden crisis, each individual, future plans, end result, true facts, actual truth, first and foremost, future plan, negatively frustrate, or completely overhaul - ) final outcome An outcome, by definition, must be final. - OR -- completely overhaul Overhaul, by definition, means to change and rework something completely.
4. EXCLAIMATION QUESTION WORD - (what) If you are not asking a question, a question word is unnecessary. what The information that follows the “what” in a sentence can usually be expressed without this word.
5.PRONOUN SENTENCE START - (here, there, or it) have a form of the 'to be' verb as the main verb of the sentence. Many times, starting sentences with these words makes sentences less specific. ("There is a lot to get done today" - This sentence is vague what needs to get done today? - BETTER- "Today, we need to vacuum the living room, mop the kitchen, and scrub the bathroom.) -- OR -- ("It is important to clean the gutters before the first rain of the season." - The importance of the information following the word “important” can be stressed with the modal “must.” - "The rain gutters must be cleaned before the first rain of the season")
6. PROFANITY - (I swear, fish, wtf )
S = SOUND
= SIMILAR SOUND MAKING WORD
P = PICTURE
(PLANT & PAYOFF)
= special effects details that employ a variety of senses to make life appear before your very eyes,
EG. "She’s like a cat in heat. She talked about him yesterday and practically sprayed the choir room."
A = ASSOCIATION
1 PERSON for GROUP
TOUCH SENSE ANALOGY
SMELL SENSE ANALOGY
SOUND SENSE ANALOGY
SEE THINGS ANALOGY
SIZE SENSE ANALOGY
TEXTURE SENSE ANALOGY
COLOUR SENSE ANALOGY
SHAPE SENSE ANALOGY
OF PEOPLE/OBJECT ANALOGY
1.HEAR & SEE
2.SAY & DO
3. TWO CHAR ATTITUDE/PERSONALITY > POSITION
4.TEMPO/RHYTHM OF SPEECH
5.POV TO OBJ/EVENT/PERSON
6.One Char Fail to See extent of Contrast/Conflict
C= CHANCE (SURPRISE/SUDDENLY)
"He’s cheating off a girl who thinks the square root of four is rainbows"
(Growth & Movement)
CHARACTER & BEAT
Take the key words in a favorite quote and “blank” them out with the relevant parts of speech: [noun] for The New Yorker, [verb] for edited. Now see if you can fill in blanks with relevant words of your own.
HOMONYMS(SIMILAR SOUNDING WORDS)
( It’s also a good mental exercise will prevent dementia when I’m older)
1ST suss out the PITH and KEY WORDS of what you want to say;
2ND list relevant SYNONYMS, looking for like-sounding words called “homonyms”;
3RD combine the HOMONYMS in phrases to see whether any make sense;
4TH use the successful homonyms in CONTEXT.
EG. OF LONG RHYTHM = "He unglued himself, untangled the electrodes. He left the bedroom, saw Lorna, waved good morning. She was crouched over her computer screen, and her habitual cup of tea. He went to the terrace, watched the sun rise. It came over the headland. It was five o’clock.
EG. OF SHORT RHYTHM = Carefully ungluing and disentangling himself from the electrodes, he left his bedroom, waved good morning to Lorna (crouched bleary-eyed over her computer screen and habitual cup of tea) and went on to the terrace to watch the sun rising over the headland. It was five o’clock.
0.REPETITION of 1 word/1 phrase/similar sounding words again and again for effect. Don't be afraid to use same word again and gain in sentences one after another for Speech like effect.
0.LINE LENGTH (LONG,FLOWING, CALM, SLOW, WORDY, REFLECTIVE with COMPLEX PATTERN, BRACKETS & CLAUSES, SEEMLESS TRANSITIONS WITH CONNECTING WORDS, BEGINNING WITH PARTICIPLE like "carefull…"/SHORT, ACTIVE MAIN VERBS, HARD TRANSITION WITH EMPHASIS ON FOCUS, QUICK, IRREGULAR, STACCATO, IRRATIC, EMPHATIC, ABRUPT, AGITATED, IRRITATED & DISTRESSED.
SOUND SYMBOLISM - Consider an ono when you’re telling a story, upping the drama quotient of an argument, or using slapstick humor.
"He’s always flapping that large jaw"
(create MOOD for Person/thing or To connect things or concepts, or to emphasize sounds that amplify or diminish.)= ALLITERATION- TIPS FOR CREATING ALLITERATION. 1ST LIST ADJECTIVES FOR PERSON. 2ND THESURA check words starting with same alphabets. 3rd writer words as alleteration to describe.
Suppose you want to describe an evilly subtle character. It’s hard to go wrong with the serpentine “s” sound. To construct an alliterative string, start by writing down words that describe the characternever mind the letters for a moment.
Now come up with synonyms that begin with “s.” Although I like the challenge of thinking them up in my head, I’m not too proud to use a thesaurus. An excellent online resource, thesaurus.com, has a prominent place among my browser bookmarks. Let’s see what the site can do for us.
Untrustworthy = shady, sharp, shifty, slippery, sneaky
Backstabbing = slanderous, smearing, spiteful, slimy, sly
Hypocritical = sanctimonious, smooth, snide, specious, slick, swindling, smarmy, sycophantic
Fake = pseudo, spurious
All you have left to do is to choose the words that work best.
YOU: A slippery, sly, smarmy pseudofriend.
“p” word, for example, pinpoints pretty or petty properties Peter Piper, for instance, obviously was a pretty picky little piker.
“m” sounds in reference to food imply massiveness and mastication.
“n” words evoked an annoying background noise. “nattering nabobs of negativism.”
“h” sound lends an air of breathlessness to the relationship
“heroes and hijackers”
saying something that contains “from … to …,” you can substitute a sound repeater
elephants and mouse infants.
“l” words(QUICK & SHORT)which subtly remind the audience of tasting or even licking
disgusting syllables uck and ish. (Mucking, gishing
F, C, B, D, etc.-ugly, aggressive insult words often begin with hard or plosive consonants: F, C, B, D
‘Sad’ and ‘melancholy’ have downward inflections, and a person in such a state of mind may well use words that have a similar ring: ‘if only’, lonely’, ‘hope-less’, etc.
METAPHOR CREATION - CHANGING NOUNS/WORD TO VERB/ADJECTIVE/ADVERBS (surprising that most nouns remain virgins, as yet unverbed)
sodded, greened, saplinged, lawnblown, chemicaled, and nitpicked
" killer smile.= Doberman smile.
fart was as loud as a firecracker.=firecracker-loud fart
table the size of Butte=Butte-sized table
=describing a type = Takes various parts of speech and makes them the object of a sentence= way to come up with the getting-medieval figure is to insert an expression after “get” or “got.” Insert “all” before the object if you want to make the figure obvious. Saying “she got all kindergarten teacher” OR Take expressions people frequently use and stick them in the back of your sentence as an object. YOU: He tried a but-I-didn’t and got a yes-you-did.
she got all kindergarten teacher
Let’s not get stuck on “She saids.”
Don’t get stuck on stupid
VENEREALS or GROUP'S CHARACTERISTIC WORD - ORGY OF GROUP WORD
= INDICATING PHENOMENON OF THE LABLE GROUP (ADJ/VERB CHANGED AS NOUN) What are their characteristic expressions, moods, movements, gestures, or habits? : PIMPLES, SHY, BOASTING, SCUFFLING, HANDS IN POCKETS
bashfulness of boys
eruption of thirteen-year-old
LIST TO DEVICE 'GROUP WORD' characteristic expressions, moods, movements, gestures, or habits?
WORD REPEAT- ACCUSITION & EMOTIONAL TALK
(ANGER & LOVE finds best expression in Repitition) - BLAME! BLAME! - You can also repeat an aspect of the person’s character or attitude.
The repetition strikes one blow after another to chop limbs from the body of Bonds’s work. - "To me you never existed in the pantheon of baseball, you never hit more than 700 home runs, you never hit 73 home runs."
What do you mean, “We all make mistakes like that”? I didn’t get drunk at the trustees’ luncheon. I didn’t tell Alice Roquefort that if she wasn’t over eighty I’d try to “make out with her.” I didn’t try to teach everyone an obscene sailor song (But you don’t have to repeat “I” or “you.”)
Without a thought for other people, you went ahead and indulged yourself. Without a thought for the consequences, you caused grave damage …
emphasize OBJECT'S VALUE to you, boldface “shirt” by repeating it - " You borrowed my shirt? My lucky shirt? The shirt I need for the presentation tomorrow? The shirt that needs a particular dry cleaner who understands how the cuff gets a wrinkle if they’re not careful? My good shirt?"
2 or more sentences in a row built in the same way. ---- "WE MUST Kill them. WE MUST incinerate them. Pig AFTER pig. Cow AFTER cow. Village AFTER village. Army AFTER army.
1.INTRODUCE-DEVELOP-ESTABLISH a new 'idea' Eg. - "Evil Spirits, that WAS IT. The evil spirits had MADE HIM DO IT…The evil spirits would NOT WIN.
2.FOCUS-REFOCUS to acclimatise with new environment - "He looked up at the ceiling, SO high up, SO piercingly white"
3.EMPHASISE REPEATED ACTION -I did them last night. I did them the night before. I did them the night before last. I did them more times than I can count
4.DEAL WITH EACH OPP. PT - TIP = you list all your opponent’s arguments or advantages, put “regardless” or “no matter” in front of each, build to a crescendo of ridiculousness, and then wipe them all away with the superiority of your product or argument
5. CLUB HITTING LIKE FEELING - repetition of the first word also sounds the most clublike
Regardless of which mechanical apparatus is added; regardless of how many funny cartoons there are; regardless of whether they play the song from a TV show, give the player a board game to play, play the overture from Les Misérables, or get down on one knee and sing “Mammy,” all modern slot machines … are computers
No matter how much the competition sticks a fancy label on it, no matter how many claims that it slices and dices and does spreadsheets, no matter how sincere their money-back guarantee and offer of their firstborn child if you’re not satisfied, their product is still inferior to ours
And I will lower taxes. And I will increase Social Security for our seniors. And I will spend bajillions on defense to honor our brave warriors. And I will cut out all government waste on the remaining 20 percent of the government. And I will eliminate all deficits by burning carbon fuels and protecting the environment.
FINISHING YOUR SENTENCE
with PITH TERM or EXPRESSION:
CHOOSE YOUR IDIOT
(sound DESPERATE, and audience do anything to stop you from repeating)
Take whatever idiot they have at the top of whatever agency and give me a better idiot. Give me a caring idiot. Give me a sensitive idiot. Just don’t give me the same idiot.
If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.
If you want to earn money, grow your money, end up with a serious amount of money, invest in ohmanwillthisevermakemoney.
TIP - Any time you’re stuck for words, find the key ones in advance using the pith method. In Broussard’s case, it’s clear he came up with one: “idiot.” Repeating it again and again, each time with a variation, hits home the idiotic label of the FEMA director. Whether you put them at the beginning or the end, repeaters let you say “Any choice but that one” dramatically and memorably
"TIP = ask for ALTERNATIVE to STATUS QUO…Repeating the last, crucial word is ideal when you’re asking for an alternative to the status quo. Imagine your son has an incompetent teacher.emphasize a more useful key word, like, say, “teacher.” YOU: Give him a scary teacher, a foul-smelling teacher, a militant, yardstick-wielding teacher. Just give him a teacher.
= Positive APPLY TO SELF & make it Negative
"You said you wanted to play football in the worst way. Well, you’re playing it in the worst way."
TIP = APPLY TO SELF to RE-DEFINE ISSUA. Take a word that seems supportive of the other side, and twist it.
IAN FAITH: "I really think you’re just making much too big a thing out of it." DEREK SMALLS: "Making a big thing out of it would have been a good idea."
TIP = come up with the appropriate synonyms to make the device work. The trick is to find the pith the key words and take it through homonymnastics by finding the synonyms. WIFE: Sure, you want a cruise because you need to relax. You want to relax your moral standards.
TIP = You can make something sound inevitable, even inescapable, by putting it in “blank_ is/will be _ blank” form. "Boys will be Boys" " coworker will be coworker"/ " but number two is number two."
“blank_ is/will be _ blank”“blank_ is/will be _ blank”
CONVEYING INTERDEPENDENT PROCESS:
LOSE WAR FOR A SHOE
follows you through one logical door after another.Layer your repetition and lead your audience through a whole different set of doors.
“For want of a shoe the horse was lost, for want of a horse the rider was lost …”
Boil the sugar to make a simple syrup, stir the simple syrup with gin, pour the sweetened gin onto ice …
Because they didn’t bring enough water, they got dehydrated. Being dehydrated, they got hypothermia. Hypothermia impaired their judgment, and bad judgment led to their getting tragically lost.
Yeah, the Republicans were in charge when the banks went bust. But it was the Democrats, wanting loans for people who couldn’t afford them, who pressured the banks. That pressure led to balloon mortgages, ballooning mortgages led to defaults, and the defaults led to the banks going bust.
CATALOG PARTY -
CHUNK DOWN LIST
(A descriptive list.)
created a picture by assembling the parts, like a jigsaw puzzle.
MORE INFO ABSORBE since people more easily absorb thoughts that have been divided into chunks. - chunk a setting, situation, or idea is to convert it into a catalog—a list that describes characteristics or contents. - created a picture by assembling the parts, like a jigsaw puzzle.
PACK LOT OF INFO
Packs a lot of story into that catalog - "In the great, green room there was a telephone, and a red balloon, and a picture of a cow jumping over the moon. And there were three little bears sitting on chairs, and two little kittens, and a pair of mittens, and a comb and a brush and a bowl full of mush, and a quiet old lady who was whispering hush."
1. LIST TELLING DETAILS - Just the PITH elements that get you where you want to go with your audience. Are you trying to make your audience comfortable and sleepy? Then leave out the stiletto heel kicked off by the drunken mother
"2. ORGANIZE UR LIST - When a beautiful woman gets out of a cab, we first see her legs, followed by the rest of her, before the camera pulls back to reveal the rest of the scene. SIMILARLY you can start with the person’s most eye-grabbing characteristic, and let the mental camera pan up or down from there before pulling back.
A. GEOGRAPHICALLY LIST DETIALS (ACC. TO MOOD DESIRED)- LIKE CAMERA PAN… BOTTOM TO TOP/ SIDEWAYS.
B. Chronologically - While telling story with a list, chronological order usually works best. This happened, and then this. One way to do a chronology by catalog is to leave out the “ands” or “buts” the way a play-by-play announcer works. A catalog of events, told without conjunctions until the end, helps build suspense because it sounds less like an obligatory What I Did for Summer Vacation (“Then I played video games. Then my mother came in and yelled at me. Then I got into the car.”), and more like a set of events that build to something. EG. "I packed all the bags, fed the kids, loaded the car, shepherded the kids onboard, stopped for gas … and then discovered I’d left my eldest behind." OR "Sandy backs off, mops his forehead, runs his left index finger along his forehead, dries it off on his left pants leg."
C. Order of Importance - dwell on the experience. OBAMA while talking about Katrina Flood - "We all remember it keenly: water pouring through broken levees; mothers holding their children above the waterline; people stranded on rooftops begging for help; bodies lying in the streets of a great American city." OR Also works when you’re accusing a loved one of a chain of sins. Begin with showing up late for the party and work your way up to the point where he does embarrassing things with a lampshade.
D. General to the Particular - list not with “bodies” but with a 'Single Body"—maybe someone who had been identified, someone with a Name. Think of CAMERA, starting with the panoramic shot and zeroing in on the main character…….. RONALD RAGEN ended a list of facts with an Anecdote that humanized them. “An example is better than a sermon,”...... IN Business Presentation. Put the finest detail last in a bullet list, going from general trends to the effect on a particular store or branch office.
E. With rhyme - Works POETICALLY… Rhyming works especially well in an invitation. "I’m throwing a beer-and-Skittles, rhyme-and-riddles party." (you can use the thesaurus and a rhyming dictionary to find the right rhymes.) "Thank God for my wonderful family and worthy foes, for working play and playful work, for candy and carrots, sunny days and shady ways."
MR. POTATO HEAD CATALOGUE -(A catalog of analogs.)
Created a picture by assembling the parts, like a jigsaw puzzle. Breaks down a PERSON or OBJ or EVENT into constituent parts and then pretends that those parts came from elsewhere. Just take a characteristic or part of the subject you want to describe, and come up with an analog for each... If you intend to make a subject look great, use flattering comparisons. Do the opposite if you want to abuse someone or something.... best catalogs contain some sort of SURPRISE AT THE END... I might have done better by sticking to the SAME FAMALY OF ANALOGY, limiting myself entirely to Greek characters or the animal world. Mixing analogies isn’t as bad as mixing metaphors but benefits from consistency.
"the talent of a meat packer, the morals of a money changer and the manners of an undertaker."
"When I play tennis, I have the
agility of a tank, the
aim of a mole, and the
response time of FEMA."
"A lovely party! The
food of a bachelor’s fridge, the
music playlist of an aging hair-band roadie, and
guests straight out of Dumb and Dumber,without the witty dialogue."
"The book had the
prose style of the Congressional Record, the
characterization of a computer manual, and the
suspense of a phone book."
"He had the
body of Adonis, the
eyes of a hypnotist, and the
brains of an aging invertebrate."
"Thank God for my wonderful family and worthy foes, for working play and playful work, for candy and carrots, sunny days and shady ways."
CATALOGUE WITH PACKAGING
-RUSSIAN DOLL’S FIGURE
"The principal is a rulebook
wrapped in pomposity
inside a whole lot of bad skin."
"A Christmas tree is an incendiary bomb
covered in needles and
wrapped in electric bulbs."
"She’s a circus clown
wrapped in pom-poms and
topped with a hair extension."
CATALOG OF SYNONYMS
(REPETITION OF CONCEPT/
SINGLE TRAIT or OBJECT not word)
(A catalog of words with similar meaning.)
- Catalog a SINGLE TRAIT or OBJECT by rendering its synonyms.
It’s an excellent way to EXAGGERATE A PARTICULAR CHARACTERISTICS... it’s repetition of a concept rather than of words. The image the audience gets is of one EXTREME & sometime with SURPRISE END.
"This parrot has bought the farm. He has checked out. He’s defunct, departed, gone to meet his maker. He is a bygone parrot whose date has expired. He is exsanguinous, spectral, and eternally imperturbable. THIS IS AN EX-PARROT!! But wait. Did it just blink?”
"She strode like a grenadier, was strong and upright like an obelisk, had a beautiful face, a candid brow, pure eyes, and not a thought of her own in her head."
"It had color, noise, huge clashing armies, sound and fury, and not a single believable character."
"The hike was painful, agonizing, arduous, and the most fun thing I’ve ever done."
"He was big, huge, linebacker huge, refrigerator huge, large. He contained multitudes."
Whenever you’re walking someplace or traveling—find alternative adjectives for everything you see.
1ST - "The day is bright, glimmering, shimmering, sunny, clear, limpid."
2ND - Now switch to alternative nouns: the sun is an orb, a planetary object, a ball, a fire, an eye, a god.
3RD - Now verbs.
Most of the good writers I know are constantly rewording things in their heads. The exercise makes you better at all kinds of figuring, since synonyms and homonyms lie behind so much wordplay.
(A DESCRIPTIVE 'SUBSTITUTE' FOR NAME as NICK NAME for PERSON/BODY PART/GROUP/PLACE/OBJ WHICH CAN STAND ALONE based on RELATED EVENT OR CHARACTERISTICS)
(A description that stands for the name of someone or something.) = pins a snapshot on a person, thing, or concept. the snapshot then becomes the thing it depicts, representing the original in people’s minds. Substitute for a name but a whole new name in its own right... sum up some fine bad attitudes.
SUBTLE DECSCIPTIVE LABLES ON ENEMY- LIER PERSON = Surfer Boy
LOKESH = SHORT CAPPY GUY
NICK NAME v/s Descriptive Label - One can easily turn into the other. A descriptive label, though, can stand on its own, serving as a description of someone you’ve never met.
create a catalog of characteristics, then think of something that represents or sums up those traits.
make the traits themselves stand for the person
EG. School ="Brick House" or "the Smells Lab"
(the figure enhances the name. slogan can hurt as well as flatter.)
(A description that immediately precedes or follows the name. similar to Descriptive Lables except, it isn’t meant to substitute for the name. ) Attaching a description to the end—or, sometimes, the beginning— of a person’s name.
our-second-born, George / great-uncle George / Peter the Great / Ethelred the Unready / Kempner, the knock-kneed socialite / Kissinger, “the chubby socialite-war criminal” / unbearable Play–Doh–faced homunculus–action toy Sylvester Stallone / Bob the incompetent plumber / Plump, frizzy-haired Sharon /
(A description that defines.) STRUCTURE- “Off-road vehicles(Noun) are/is …” and fill in the blank. DICTIONARY DEFINITION ENTRY. For CONCEPT/PERSON/PLACE/THING. It's a form of description, reinforced with a dictionary-like authority.Description and a rule/Attitude are blended together in an attempt to create the truth.
Dave: (n) Nice guy
Destiny: A tyrant’s authority for crime and a fool’s excuse for failure
Discussion: A method of confirming others in their errors
Saint: A dead sinner revised and edited
Truth: An ingenious compound of desirability and appearance
(ASK MEANING) TEACHER: "What do I MEAN when I say the hero is 'Unrelenting'. STUDENT : "Its like say, like if Rahul trys to do something, and he is going and he is going, and me, I try to stop him, and he no stop, he keep on going. Relentless - un." (Teacher just smile)
or SWAP SOMETHING
by Connecting it in Imagination
( ALL TROPES PLAY PRETEND. Hyperbole pretends that something is way more or less, bigger or smaller, than its literal reality. Metaphor pretends that one thing is something else. The belonging trope pretends that a trait or possession is the entire owner, or vice versa; ).... Autism is difficulty in recognizing tropes since they feel its a Lie... a leg is not a person if u say " 2 fine legs entered my office." "eyes in the back of your head.” "He was the apple of her eye."
PART FOR WHOLE
"A SWEET PAIR OF LEGS walked ostensably into my office."
COLOUR OF A THING
STAND FOR THING
"She leveled her baby blues at me." - something (color) stand for the thing itself (eyes). Red,Orange,White stand for Indian Flag & Indian Patriotic feeling.
FOR WHAT'S CONTAINED
container (Gucci shoes) stands in for what it contains (feet).
Saying one thing while Meaning/Doing another. “ "I am Private R not Eye… R for Rethoritician" ‘R’ for ‘rhetorician.’ Hilarious.” She wasn’t laughing
ABBRIVIATION/ ALPHABET FOR WHOLE WORD
"I am Private R not Eye… R for Rethoritician"
OBJ. 'DOES' SUBSTITUTED FOR OBJ
object does (defying gravity) swaps in for the object itself (pair of breasts). "I leered at the feat of gravity that lay beneath the unbuttoned top of her blouse."
OBJ. SUBSTITUDED FOR ITS PURPOSE/INTENTION/USE
things (eyes) represent their purpose (looking). “Keep your eyes to yourself. I’m married.” "eyes in the back of your head.”
MEASUREMENT OF OBJ SUBSTITUTED FOR OBJ
measurement (pint) stands in for the thing measured (alcohol bottle). "I grab a pint”
INGREDIENT FOR WHOLE
ingredient (rye) pretends to be the whole thing (whiskey) "I grabbed a pint of rye from under the desk."
IMITATIVE ACTION SUBSTITUTED FOR ACTION ITSELF
“Care for a toot?” swap an imitative motion (like tooting a horn) for the action itself (drinking from a bottle)
SOUND SUBSTITUTED FOR ACTION
"U will soon Achoo ! (Catch Cold)"
ONE IDENTIFYING OBJ SUBSTITUTED FOR GROUP
expensive shoe or watch to show our membership in the upper middle class
STYLE SUBSTITUTED FOR MAN
when you represent a man with a pair of flip-flops, that representation counts as a trope. One that’s pretty easy to spot, because it stands as a symbol
CONCEPT SUBSTUTED FOR PERSON/THING
Calling undocumented immigrants “illegals” implies that their very existence is against the law.
PERSONIFICATION - pretend that something nonhuman has the characteristics of a human… "Flag weaving at me"
EUPHAMISM with IRONY
described a ratty old chair, unwillingly inherited from your in-laws, as “picturesque.”
(Tools That Shrink and Expand people, things, and ideas)
(EXAGGERATE NON-LITERALLY) "Her legs go on forever" - means they r v. long
for I WON'T
(most extreme kind of hyperbole) Last-Person-on-Earth Figure / : STRUCTURE - I wouldn’t [verb], even if [scenario]
STEPS = Use 3 items for comparison, starting with a fairly reasonable one and working your way up to the truly outrageous.
(ANGER/HATE) YOUNG LADY: "I wouldn’t go out with you if there was a second worldwide flood and Noah himself invited us on board to propagate the species"
(HALF SERIOUS/HUMOROUS DENIAL)reply to a teenager’s unreasonable request for the car. - “I don’t care if every girl on earth is clamoring for your attention and you’re late for an audition with American Idol. You’re not getting the car.” (I find it easier than the more straight-faced version.)
ABSURD CHUNK DOWN SCENARIOS
PURPOSE : To exaggerate the weakness in someone else’s argument. -Reduces the logic & it blows up the conclusion, pursuing the argument to an illogical end.
1ST STEP … LOOK AND FIND WEAK SPOT IN ARGUMENT OR PROPOSITION OF OPPONENT
2ND STEP - ACT OUT SCENARIO…. proceed to exploit it.
Absurd Clause "If-Then"
(connecting Absurd Analogy) = if (ridiculous assertion), then (absurd conclusion)
STRUCTURE : Provisionally accepting the other person’s point by repeating it with an “If”___ in front (“If this is an opportunity …”). This buys you time to think of two things:
1. A comparable—something associated with the subject of your opponent’s sentence. (If a, then b.)
2. A possible exaggeration of that comparable. (If a does b, then x does y.) (if-then clause can express an analogy. If a is true, then isn’t that like b?) “Washington is an infamously fashion-backward town. So that’s like being a dance critic at a place where people can’t dance.”
(UNBELIEVABLE SITUATION) depict a celebrity meeting regular folk. HERO KATY PERRY: "Hi, I’m Katy Perry." REGULAR GUY: "Yeah, and I’m Ben Stiller."
GAME - The if-then clause makes for a good “top this” game at dinnertime. Ask one person to make an assertion or render an opinion. The next person has to reduce that point to absurdity. Then the next person reduces that absurd point to even more absurd absurdity, and so on.
PERSON 1: Justin Bieber is actually a very good singer.
PERSON 2: If Justin Bieber is a good singer, then my cat should audition for the Met.
PERSON 3: If your cat can sing opera, then I’ll let my husband sing in church.
PERSON 4: If Bob sings in church, I’ll look for the other horsemen of the Apocalypse.
SCENARIO POLITICAL - Very appropriate where Politicians do something then lable/explain it as something alse.
Feigned PRECISION NUMBER
(A form of hyperbole that pretends accuracy.)
"Precisely eighty-two times. Not counting this one."
(GULLIBLE CHILD been EXPLAINED/DENIED SOMETHING with Reason ) "I’m guessing that at least three thousand people have died horrible long-term deaths from listening to that album of Bagpiper."
ME: That’s a big one. Fifty-seven feet three and a half inches.
GEORGE: How do you know?
ME: Instant triangulation. Remind me to teach you when you’re old enough.
UNDERSTATEMENT: NOT QUITE SHOT OR DROWNED
ADMIRER: You hit a tree?YOU: No, the tree attacked my bike. I was just in the way.
(SCARY MOMENT/CONTRAST) focus on something trivial or unscary to show (or feign) insouciance in the face of terror. Fiction writers often use the technique to set off scary moments: the character facing down the gun notices a pigeon soaring in the sky overhead. You use it to exaggerate your character.
(MEMORY/FEELING FOCUS in TIMES OF TENSION) "While I was being introduced and fighting off a panic attack, I suddenly thought of Baby Ruth bars. I hadn’t had a Baby Ruth bar in years. Now, suddenly, I thought how much nicer eating a candy bar would be than speaking in front of these people."
LITOTES - Over-the-top UNDERSTATEMENT TYPE - it denies a hyperbole
An understatement that DENIES an Exaggeration.
(CRITICISE) "He didn’t exactly set the art world on fire."
(DEFENSIVE) "Let’s say the play wasn’t a smash hit."
(TENSE SCENARIO)"I’m not defusing bombs for my health, here."
(SARCASTIC) "The report of my death was an exaggeration." Mark Twain's wrong death report
"(IRRITATED MOOD) LOVED ONE: Looks like rain.
YOU: Yes, it’s not exactly a day when the sun does its smiley face in the sky and bluebirds dance on your shoulder.
LOVED ONE: What’s gotten into you?"
(CONVEY SIZE) convey the size of the crowd—not the precise size, but how big it seemed to you at the time. You could use a simple hyperbole and claim that a billion people were there. Or you can use the more elegant litotes. YOU: It wasn’t like I was speaking at the dinner table. Or YOU: It wasn’t exactly an intimate tête-à-tête.
When things share characteristics, they’re ripe for pairing up as metaphors. USE SITUATION / OBJ
TIP METHOD - 1. Find the Pith. By now you should be pretty good at this and have no need to noodle about with pen and paper. What are the key words here? “Empty” and “boring” come to mind. Next ........… 2. Think of the Comparables—places or things or even people that share these characteristics. What is the emptiest thing you can think of? How about a vacuum? ...... SO Excellent! “The Vacuum” isn’t such a bad name. From then on, your loved ones will tell the story about getting lost and going through The VACUUM. You could also play with your other key word. What’s the most boring thing you know? How about your uncle Rick? Then you could name the place RICKLAND
(EXPLAIN AN IDEA OPINION with "metaformulate a name")
Sports metaphor - for audience loving sports
FILM METAPHORE - for audience loving film
Stock Shares = “products,” a terrific metaphor that makes people believe they are buying something tangible.
BUSINESS/IDEA EXPLAINED - with Metaformulate a Name…. treat clients as honored guests, making them feel important as well as groomed. That’s your pith: clients as VIPs. Now, what comparable institutions treat clients thusly? Corporate jets certainly make passengers feel important. “G6 Salon”...Or go all the way and make your client feel like the godly elect: The Temple of Perfection
(DESCRIBE SOMEONE) Like obnoxious teenager. BELONGING VERSION: "He’s a zit with a mouth." UNWRITTEN: "His loud talking only worsens the impression his horrible complexion gives."
Easiest and most transparent to spot.
TIP METHOD - finding the key words—the essential characteristics—and then thinking of the comparables that share those characteristics.
LIKE ONLY or BUT TECHNIQUE(A simile, with exceptions)
"It’s like America … but South!"
TIP METHOD - Find the pith and match the comparables. Now think of ways that your comparables don’t match your object. Sometimes the differences can serve as a source for humor, and not just Up-style.
(EXPLAIN SEX) - "Sex is like mutual nose-picking only with the risk of childbirth at the end."
TIP - SURPRISE ENDING- find comparables that act like the ending to a good mystery novel: it seems both surprising and inevitable.
“Afghanistan is like Vietnam” ( swapping the location of an event with the event WAR itself.)
SOUND - ah-OO-ga sound submarins make when they’re about to dive comes from old Model T horns that used to be installed on the boats.
NATURE & HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
METHOD CREATE-First find the pith of your issue or argument. Next, find a comparable ordinary event or truism. Voters don’t always vote for what’s good for them. Who else doesn’t always do what’s good for them? Kids. How? By eating junk food. Ergo, "kids don’t beg for vegetables."
Takes an aspect of something and makes it represent the whole
The synecdoche uses a part or member
uses a characteristic, container, or purpose.--
This trope takes an ingredient, representative sample, container, trait, or overlap of some sort and makes it represent the thing it belongs to. The belonging trope occasionally does the opposite as well, making the owner represent what it owns.
if you want your words to be memorable, and you want to change people’s reality, the belonging trope can work that magic
"All hands on deck."
"Wiser heads prevailed"
"They speak many tongues in India."
"My blog attracts a lot of eyeballs."
(uses a 1.part or 2.member to represent the Whole) switches between
A. individual and group,
B. part/INGREDIENT/REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE(LABLE=ARCHIE...HE IS ARCHIE) and whole
(PUT DOWN/DEROGATORY DIALOGUE/ARROGANT CHAR) - "For your information, Hairdo, there’s a major network interested in me." - GROUNDHOG DAY. The hairdo belongs to the news anchor. Murray makes the hairdo stand for the news anchor.
"SCALE & SHARING & FLOWING" REPRESENTATION LITERALLY OR IN MIND / If two things share a border, if they press up against each other, or if they share a single trait, then you probably have a trope-making opportunity in the form of a metonymy. / most persuasive devices / one of the more difficult to use /
0. GESTURE representing EMOTION (Which we are asked to do in Script to add Action instead of telling Emotion)
1. CHARACTERISTICS/TRAIT - Red is a color, and it’s the color of your hair, so "I’ll call you Red."
2. CONTAINER - Container for the stuff it contains (I drank a bottle.) Whiskey is held in bottles, and I’ve been drinking a lot of whiskey, so my friend notices I’ve been hitting the bottle.
3. PURPOSE for PERSON/S -
4. OVERLAPING BOUNDRIES of REPERSENTATION or STATE OF THINGS or TRAIT -- ( Red is a color, and it’s the color of your hair, so I’ll call you Red.)
5. OWNER FOR THINGS OWNED
6. PLACE NAME FOR PEOPLE'S GROUP - “Wall Street” v/s “Main Street.”
7. OBJ FOR OWNER/USER
8. EFFECT FOR CAUSE - (He was flooded with e-mails.)
9. SIGN FOR THING SIGNIFIED - (Sign for the thing signified (Your name’s on the door.)
10. MATERIAL FOR THING MADE OF IT - (Material for the thing made (He won five golds in the Olympics.)
11. PART OBSERVED for OBSERVATION ACTION (He gave me serious face time.)
12. (REDICULE/CARICATURE ABSTRACT IDEAS) - Family mealtime becomes “chewing with fam,” where, of course, you chew the fat
Vegas being a gambling destination, how about “the gambling vacation,”
ROLE PLAYING TROPES/
(AUDIENCE need to be INSIDERS to understand DOUBLE MEANING). Claims one thing while meaning the opposite, or make believe an object or animal is a person, or pretend to be foolish or authoritative when they’re anything but. In short, role-playing tropes let you play roles.
DOUBLE MEANING - So only Inside Audience get it
UNEXPECTED CONTRASTING OPPOSITE :
to the CONTEXT/EXPECTATION
makes bad things sound good or at least not as bad.
TIP METHOD - (THINK OPPOSITE) take your unpleasant subject and pith it down to the key words. Now hunt for the pleasantest synonyms you can find. Feel free to use words that connote a contrasting quality to your original key words. You usually don’t think of a dog in the context of Peter Paul Rubens’s Baroque paintings
(MORE OBSCENE EUPHIMISM. INNUENDO is an ironic form of euphemism—a circumlocution that calls attention to what it’s supposed to be hiding.)
Channels the character of someone else
COMMAND as NEED/IMITATE AUTHORITATIVE FIGURE
(POLICE:) “Ma’am, I’m going to need to see some ID.”
RULE+OPP, contradictory wisdom/foolishly Wise expression/BEING 'LIGHT/foolish/idiot' BUT SAYING 'SERIOUS' opp of what Ironist do, Be Serious but make us 'laugh'
( by SKIP A KNOWN WORD AT THE END)
MIXING OF SENSES
EG. YELLOW SMELL
CREATIVE TENSION is ESSENTIAL NARRATIVE DEVICE - Behind great storytelling, humor, sex, and persuasion. FOCUS on devices geared specifically to tighten things up.
wit WITH CONTRAST > logic & REALITY, take attention away from your gut, & find a contrasting object or person, then blame it. -(show the differences between things. Figures of contrast let you leverage the world, using one thing to make another thing seem larger or smaller, less or more important.) - Uses a contrasting example to make something look larger or smaller, better or worse & change the perspective on an object. ...(powerful tool for memorability
PAIR OPPOSITE BELIEF
PARADOX OF LIFE is source of WIT WORLD & CREATIVE TENSION. (paradoxes shackle opposites to create tension) (para, meaning “opposite” or “contrary to”; and doxa, meaning “belief/NOTION”) (bad paired with good in each balanced phrase) --The opposites can be attractive, helping your audience understand complexity while holding their attention. - A trope that claims the truth of a contradictory statement. CATCH 22 SITUATION. - To create a paradox of your own, look for a contradiction in a person, subject, or issue.
"People lose Health to gain money, then gain Health by losing money"
“Your phone has been out for two days?” the company representative said, paradoxically. “Why didn’t you call before?”
TIP METHOD - To create a paradox of your own, look for a contradiction in a person, subject, or issue.It can come from hypocrisy. Time to employ the pith method, narrowing down to the key words. Then choose the most extreme of those words and pair them. Let’s try it with one of the most complex topics of all: dieting. The problem with diets is that your body tends to adjust to its own food intake. Rapidly reduce the number of calories, and the body slows down its metabolism and frugally stores all the energy it can into fat. This paradox constitutes the single biggest reason diets fail. People want instant results. The faster the results, the bigger the rebound effect.
Put that pithily, using words and phrases to summarize the problem.
The extremes here are “fat” and “starve.” Can you put them together in a paradox? Sure you can.
YOU: "The best way to get fat is to starve."
A paradox expressed in one two-sided phrase.
“sharp dullness”—referring to “cleverly stupid,”
TIP METHOD- think homonymnastically: look for puns that make ordinary expressions seem paradoxical. "She was a skinny broad, and that wasn’t the only part of her that was oxymoronic." “Broad” simply denotes “woman.”
MIND CONTROL "COMPARED TO..." statement = (CONTRAST = CLARITY & SHARPNESS), wit > logic , take attention away from your gut, & find a contrasting object or person, then blame it.
TIP METHOD- FIND THINGS or PERSON to blame… "COMPARED TO..." statement...We need to be more Clever. We should “privilege” the object under question. Bring in comparables to place next to your object and make it look better in contrast.
"That minuscule brain of yours makes everything look big."
Instead of merely describing them as lazy, show an example of high-energy politics as a contrast.
(DEFENCE with "Compared statement") "Compared to your average American, I’m size svelte."
TIP METHOD - best when you’re talking about some sort of action—or, in grammatical terms, a subject doing something to an object: a achieving b. If you can reverse the formula, then you have an appropriate—and powerful—mirror image. "Some say a achieves b. I say, b achieves a!" - OR - "Some do x to achieve y; others do y to achieve x." Think of a good x and y pairing that sums up the difference between the parties. How about the many and the few?
DEMOCRAT: We believe that the efforts of a few can enrich the lives of many. Our friends on the right believe that the efforts of the many should enrich the few.
" It’s not that I love you for the sex; I sex you out of love."
PACE with MUSIC (ALLITRATION/ASSONANCE) & RHYTHM(of Char's Emotion with key rhythmic elements: Punctuation/ Repetition/ The use of silence.... MAKES DIALOGUE SOUND NATURAL TO A CONSIDERABLE EXTENT) of TALK & PERSONALITY) DIALOGUE = CATCHY SONG/POETRY (Diction provides the lyrics; music provides the tune.) Dialogue relies on the sounds of words as well as their definitions. Shakespeare wrote in the unstressed-stressed pattern of conversation. -- Joy, fear, anger, grief, awe — these emotions have unmistakable rhythms; listen for them around you, examine their form, and then try to recreate them on the page. Like a catchy song, eventually, they’ll stick with you.
DIALOGUE has 3 types SPA(SOUND/PICTURE/ASSOCIATION).
0.LINE LENGTH (LONG,FLOWING, CALM, SLOW, WORDY, REFLECTIVE with COMPLEX PATTERN, BRACKETS & CLAUSES, SEEMLESS TRANSITIONS WITH CONNECTING WORDS, BEGINNING WITH PARTICIPLE like "carefull…"/SHORT, ACTIVE MAIN VERBS, HARD TRANSITION WITH EMPHASIS ON FOCUS, QUICK, IRREGULAR, STACCATO, IRRATIC, EMPHATIC, ABRUPT, AGITATED, IRRITATED & DISTRESSED.
1.WORD CHOICE (EASY, SMALL/HARD, BIG)
2.ENDING IN FULLSTOP/ELLIPSES/DASH/EXCLAIMATION/COMMA/SEMI COLON
3.VOVELS SOUND (LONG/SHORT )
4.CONSONENT SOUND(SOFT Vs NOISY, CLIPPED)
5.BEATS PER LINE (Eg. 8 beats per line)
6.SYLLABLE PER LINE
7.PUNCTUATION (COMMA USED OFTEN IN SENTENCE TO BREAK LONG SENTENCE IN SMALL GROUPS TO HELP READ FAST ie. GENERATE FAST PACE)
8.ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE
9.'-ING' SLOWS THE PACE OF READING
10.NO. OF IMAGES & THEIR SPEED OF PRESENTATION
11.LENGTH OF SOUNDS INVOLVED IN SPEAKING THE WORD
= speeds a sentence up/backbeat for the conversation (repetition of consonants and the effect of that repetition on the listener’s ear)- Imagine a tiny percussionist sitting inside each word......If it’s percussion that you’re after, alliteration’s your approach.……… PURPOSE - 1. punch a line or emphasize it for your audience...... 2. It also tends to speed a line up. ...... .... 3. Alliteration can produce the biting anger of Don Corleone or ......... 4. Michael Palin’s stutter in A Fish Called Wanda.
= EMOTIONAL SOUNDSCAPE- slows sentence down with LONG VOWELS/heightens the mood (Assonance is the repetition of a vowel sound within a phrase. Assonance creates the pitch or timbre of a conversation. If you’re trying to produce a specific tone, it’s assonance you’re after.) …….. When repeated in direct succession, vowels can mimic the human voice. A sentence full of vowels may produce a subtle moan, wail, squeal, or cry. In this way, assonance helps to create an emotional soundscape for a phrase, a speech, and possibly an entire conversation.......
C. ONOMAOPOEIA - SOUND SYMBOLISM
= don’t dot all your i’s or cross all your t’s. Unless your character’s an English buff, an aristocrat, or a robot, doing so will sound unnatural. Again, I emphasize that this rule holds true for dialogue. You’ll probably want other portions of your screenplay — your scene descriptions, for example — to remain grammatically correct.
1. PUNCTUATION PAUSE'S RHYTHM
=CLARITY & SHARPNESS & DEFINE BOTH ELEMENT
=CLARITY & SHARPNESS, DEFINE BOTH ELEMENT
PUNCTUATION'S LACK = key to realistic-sounding dialogue.
( IN ORDER OF PROGRESSION -
1. COMMA (,)
2. FULL STOP (.),
3. APOSTROPHE TO SHORTEN WORDS ('),
4. ELEPSISE, trail off (...),
5. INTERRUPT/CURTAIL DASH (-),
6. LONG PAUSE (PAUSE),
7. LONGER PAUSE (BEAT),
8. LONGEST PAUSE (SILENCE). --- Punctuation and grammar of your dialogue need not be technically correct.…..
= dash(-) (People often interrupt themselves mid-sentence. Why? ........ A) they’re excited over something and ......... B) get ahead of themselves as they speak ie. speaker can’t relay the information as fast as her brain recalls it.) “I can’t begin to tell you how wonderful it all was — did I mention the food, oh the food was just — and the wine? Out of this world — and the service?” ............C) think ideas through as they talk, The more thoughts that occur to this character, the more interruptions required.: “It’s best if the reception starts at noon, yes noon — or maybe one. That might be better. And the cake should be chocolate — oh, but Sal can’t eat chocolate, better make it vanilla. I called the musicians — wait, did I call the musicians?” ....
= ellipses (. . .) also punctuates everyday conversation. generally used when a person forgets what she’s trying to say or is searching for just the right phrase. If your character frequently trails off mid-thought, she may also be a dreamer.
Phrases that look like questions may end forcefully with an exclamation point.
NOUNS may REPLACE VERBS in sentence structure and vice versa
# 5. speak in
# 6. ALPHABET EATEN UP
2. TRAIL OFF
# 3. EXCLAIMATION = !
# 4. REPLACE
Valuable and multifaceted tool. It may be used to :
1. EMPHASIZE A POINT (Repeat same pt 3 diff place) - “We get the job done, do you hear me? We get. The job. Done.”
2. create STUTTER during CONFUSION, LOVE, FEAR - “What I meant was, what I meant to say just then, was to ask, that is I would like to know, I would like very much to know if you might consider, just consider mind you, going out sometime.”
3. show EAGERNESS or DEMAND - “Did you get it? Well? Did you? Did you get the job?”
More important for conveying intent on-screen. If words are implied, a silence may take the place of an entire conversation. However, bear in mind that silences in film are usually conveyed through action or gesture. Characters do something instead of saying something.
2 MAIN USE -
# 1 - HIGHLIGHT LAST SPOKEN LINE(If your last line is a humdinger, if you want your audience to remember it, script a pause after it. This pause allows the line to linger before the next action directs attention elsewhere.)
# 2. SUGGEST THAT SOME ' NON-VERBAL EXCHANGE' is TAKING PLACE.
= "He unglued himself, untangled the electrodes.
He left the bedroom, saw Lorna, waved good morning.
She was crouched over her computer screen, and her habitual cup of tea.
He went to the terrace, watched the sun rise. It came over the headland. It was five o’clock."
= Carefully ungluing and disentangling himself from the electrodes, he left his bedroom, waved good morning to Lorna (crouched bleary-eyed over her computer screen and habitual cup of tea) and went on to the terrace to watch the sun rising over the headland.
It was five o’clock.
3 SILENCE RHYTHM
EG. OF LONG RHYTHM
EG. OF SHORT RHYTHM
JOY'S/LOVE'S RHYTHM (hearts beat wildly against the chest)
FEAR'S RHYTHM (pulse begins to race)
ANGER'S RHYTHM - stomp and growl or stare coldly
(T/D/TH) Makes hard POUNDING SOUND (hard “d’s” SOUND) out on a kettledrum & taps the (“t’s” SOUND) out on a snare. In any case, he repeats the sounds of each word in such a way that they produce an audible rhythm. That rhythm is alliteration
(P/B/PH) “Hollywood is jam-packed with professional people pounding on doors.” The repeated “p” here creates the sound of those people in action- POUNDING.
(WH) “The wind whistles through the willow tree.” The “wh” sound here becomes the WIND.
(HARD T) “Terrific, I say. Terrific. It’s utterly and totally terrific.” This sentence is explosive in part because of the resounding “t’s.”
(LONG O = MOURN) “Don’t go. I won’t know what to do with myself all alone.” The long “o’s” in this sentence underscore its mournful request. They prolong the phrase so that the other character, and, therefore, an audience, can hear it.
(LONG A=SADNESS) “It rained on my birthday. A cold rain that refused to abate until the guests had gone away.” The long “a” sounds here emphasize the sadness of the speaker.
(LONG I = determination/victory cry) “I will fly higher than ever before. I will fly until your eyes cannot detect me and I become the sky itself.” The repeated long “i’s” here accentuate the speaker’s determination. The phrase has the sound of a victory cry.
(F,P,SH = EXPLOSIVE SOUNDS) REQUIRE COMPLEX AIR MOV
(OU,OI,OO = SMOOTH, SHORT VOWEL SOUNDS)
(M/B/W = EASIER TO PRODUCE)
(K,G = SHORT VOWEL, LEAST WORK FROM LARYNX)
WRITING'S RHYTHM TYPE
WRITE WITH PUNCT/INTERRUP, REPEAT & SILENCE + ALLITERATION & ASSONANCE - Practice rewriting generic or otherwise neutral dialogue with these three musical elements, or layer them into a scene from your script. You should be able to say essentially the same thing with different emotions in mind and, therefore, with varying rhythms.
1. SOFT - lullaby, lilting and slow - “It is Spring, moonless night in the small town, starless and bible-black, the cobblestreets silent and the hunched courters-and-rabbits wood limping invisible down to the sloeblack, slow, black, crowblack, fishingboat bobbing sea.”
2. HARD - hard consonants and repetition - “I don’t need no black baby lamb with a bell in its tail and I ain’t gettin’ no cradle for no dead crow. I have a baby! My own baby! With its own cradle! You’ve stolen me away from my baby’s cradle!”
3. Hold Passage Together - sound of each word in conjunction with the others, by the felt melody those sounds create together. They’re held together, in part, by music.
4.TENSION & EMOTION UNDERLYING - music component of dialogue is responsible for any mounting tension or emotional undercurrent in a scene. After you know what types of phrases your character utters, rework them with an ear toward melody and percussion. Which voices enhance each other? Which are combative? What is the character’s state of mind as he speaks?