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Clark, Quiet Revolution, Quebec Nationalism Timeline
Transcript of Clark, Quiet Revolution, Quebec Nationalism Timeline
Clark, Quiet Revolution, Quebec Separation (1959 - 1991)
1959 - Death of Maurice Duplessis
Premier of Quebec for 18 years
"Great Darkness" Many secrets kept from public
No economic advancement, Quebec left in the dark
Led Union Nationale
1960 - Jean Lesage Elected
Beginning of the Quiet Revolution.
Founding of Rally for national Independence; dedicated to the independence of Quebec
Liberals ended the long reign of the Union Nationale
51.5% of the popular vote as compared to the opposition’s 46.6% of the vote.
Head of Québec Liberal Party, "It's time for a change."
It was a time of social change and modernization of Quebec, a change from the isolation and social conservatism of Duplessis.
(Quebec Nationalism & Quiet Revolution)
Quebec Secular Movement
Creation of the Office of the French Language
Georges-Emile Lapalme appointed first Minister of Cultural Affairs.
Establishment of a public hospital network, a creation of ministries of cultural affairs and of federal-provincial relations
Harold Mantilla & Jaylene Murillo
Nationalization of private electricity companies
The Liberals won for the nationalization of power with 56.6% of the vote and 63 seats.
Provincial election under the theme 'Maitres chez nous'.
Nationalization of Hydroelectric companies was focus
Large demonstration in front of Montreal Head Office of Canadian National Railways (CNR).
Gordon "incident", Claims that there are so few French Canadians on the Board of the CNR because there is a lack of competent French Canadians.
1963 - Quebec Nationalism
Royal Commission of Inquiry into Bilingualism and Biculturalism.
Demonstrates in several volumes (1965-1969) that Canada was in a state of crisis and that French Canadians are frequently at a disadvantage linguistically, economically and in the civil service.
Plans for the nationalisation of Hydro electric companies are announced.
(All public hydroelectric companies nationalized - Quiet Revolution)
Formation of Front de Libération du Québec (FLQ); marked the beginning of several waves of terrorist actions taken in Québec from 1963-1972.
The Quiet Revolution
Parent Commission made the Parent Report. Concluded that education was a right and secularized schools. A Ministry of Education was also established, standardizing school curriculum and reducing Catholic school boards from 1,500 to 55.
Extensive revision of the labor code (Bill 16), abolished a married woman's judicial restrictions by which her legal status was that of a minor; and a pension plan.
Lesage agreed to a proposal for amending the Canadian constitution by a method known as the Fulton-Favreau formula. - Would have allowed the Parliament of Canada to repeal or amend any provision of the Constitution, subject to a veto by any given province on certain major issues, or to a two-thirds majority on others.
Extreme reactions of various nationalist groups within the province. Lesage withdrew his support and dissociated from the other 10 governments that had accepted the formula.
Creation of Ministry of Education, seen as first step toward improvement of the Québécois
position. Faith was put in education, as a tool for social promotion, during the Quiet Revolution.
Lesage announced that Quebec withdraws from some 29 federal-provincial programs.
Fédération Libérale du Québec (Quebec LIberal Party) splits from the Liberal Party of Canada. From now on, the provincial party is autonomous from the national party.
Signing of first international agreement of Quebec with France. Beginning of periodic clashes with Federal Government over role and presence of Quebec in international affairs.
Creation of Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation, great part of the plans to develop the economy of Quebec and enhance the position of the French language and of francophones in the economy of Quebec. Various amounts collected by the Government of Quebec (pension funds, agricultural insurance, car insurance) are deposited and administered
Quebec Pension Plan, which grew to several billion dollars.
Lesage's Liberals defeated by the Union Nationale Party led by Daniel Johnson. Johnson is known for his Equality or Independence stand. Years of constitutional wrangling were to follow.
Caused by hardening of position in both Quebec and Ottawa.
Visit to Quebec of President Charles de Gaulle. Occasion for his famous "Vive le Québec Libre" speech. Outrage in Ottawa and in the rest of Canada but many Québécois evidently pleased.
A slate of candidates committed to channeling all the children of "immigrants" into French schools was elected to the Catholic School Commission of St. Leonard. Beginning of the St. Leonard School crisis that culminated in the passing of Bill 63 (1969).
Bill 63 issued by Jean Jacques Bertrand government. First bill to promote the French Language in Quebec; in reality, the bill mostly guaranteed the right of parents to choose the language of instruction of their children. Very negative reaction throughout French Quebec. Language issue becoming radicalized.
Kidnapping of British High Commissioner in Montreal and murder of Pierre Laporte (Minister of Labour) by Front de Libération du Québec. War Measures Act by Federal Government.
New Bourassa government showed little leadership. Hysteria present in public, press and governments. Hundreds are arrested who will never be charged.
Public did not approve of terrorism
A regulation from Quebec made it compulsory for all English language schools to teach French as a second language.
James Bay development project is announced by Bourassa
The federal government accepted Quebec's requests that family allowances be distributed under terms laid down by the provincial government.
-federal family allowances' amount shall be varied in such a way as to promote a higher birth rate.
-a provincial family allowance, along the same lines, shall be created.
Common front strike in the public sector.
Gendron Report is published. Recommended one official Language and two national languages for Quebec.
Bourassa government reelected
Official Languages Act is enacted.
Came under attack by extremists from both sides of the language debate.
National Assembly voted a Charter of Rights. Amended on several occasions afterwards to improve it further, the Charter made it compulsory for every provincial law to conform to its terms. A 60% majority is necessary to amend its clauses.
Human Rights Commission was created.
Bourassa outlined the constitutional position of 1975, demanded a veto for Quebec and a final say over matters of language, culture, communication, as well as an expanded role in immigration. Policy of "cultural sovereignty".
Bill 101 issued. Provisions to make French the dominant language in Quebec (Public Administration, education, economy). Restrictions are placed on the use of other languages (except native languages) in some areas (laws, signs, etc.). The anglophone community was evidently stunned by the content of the Bill but there was, obviously , great support for its provisions among francophones who saw it as the affirmation of their collective language rights.
June 4th, 1979-Progressive Conservatives Elected
Joe Clark's Progressive Conservative Party bested Pierre Trudeau's Liberal Party in the 1979 General Election.
Head of a minority government
Clark served as the leader of the Progressive Conservative Party until 1983.
Provincial Liberal Party released its Beige Paper outlining its constitutional proposals for a renewed federation.
Massive decentralisation proposed. The Liberal Party had a credible leader (Claude Ryan) and a popular policy
Major revamping of the Civil Code of Quebec
59.5% of Quebecers voted against the sovereignty association proposal in the referendum. During the campaign, Trudeau promised that a no answer would be interpreted as a yes for a renewed federation.
March 3rd-In general elections Clark’s party was defeated by the Liberals headed by Pierre Elliott Trudeau.
Patriation of the Constitution despite the objections of the Government of Quebec. A Canadian Charter of Rights was included and some of the provisions clashed evidently with clauses of Bill 101. Quebec lost its right of constitutional veto.
New Bourassa government outlined its constitutional demands: constitutional veto, limitation on the spending power of the Federal government, a role in the appointment of Supreme Court judges; recognition of the distinctive character of Quebec and improved powers over immigration. The new Mulroney government elected in 1984 was receptive to these points and eventually the other provinces agreed to a "Quebec round" of constitutional discussions.
National Assembly adopted Bill 142 which guaranteed social services in the English language in Quebec.
September 4th- Clark held a formal leadership-selection meeting and was defeated by Brian Mulroney. Clark served in Mulroney’s government as secretary of state for external affairs (1984–91)
(Joe "Stacks on stacks" Clark)
Signing of the Meech Lake Accord. Opposition of the PQ to several of the clauses; however it seemed clear that the majority of Quebecers supported its provisions
Discussions around Meech Lake Accord. The rest of the country was increasingly hostile to the idea of recognising Quebec as a distinct society. In the end, the Accord was not voted in Manitoba (role of E. Harper) and in Newfoundland (role of Clyde Wells); thus it died among bitter feelings in 1990.
Climate of tolerance toward Quebec is deteriorating. Increase of pro nationalist feeling detected by several polls in Quebec.
You "Moosen't" leave without checking out our sources!
DUROCHER, RENÉ. "Quiet Revolution." The Canadian Encyclopedia. The Canadian Encyclopedia, 30 July 13. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/quiet-revolution/>.
Bélanger,, Claude. "Chronology of Quebec Nationalism 1960-1991 - Quebec History." Chronology of Quebec Nationalism 1960-1991 - Quebec History. Marianopolis College, 23 Aug. 2000. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/chronos/national.htm>.
"Canadian History for Martians." Canadian History for Martians. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://canadianhistoryformartians.wordpress.com/franco-anglo/the-boss-maurice-duplessis/>.
Jones, Richard. "French Canadian Nationalism." The Canadian Encyclopedia. The Canadian Encyclopedia, 19 Dec. 2013. Web. 2 Mar. 2014. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/french-canadian-nationalism/>.
Bélanger, Claude. "Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution." Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution (1960-1966). Marianopolis College, 23 Aug. 2000. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/readings/lesage.htm>.
"At the MUSEUM." The Quiet Revolution. McCord Museum, n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.mccord-museum.qc.ca/scripts/explore.php?Lang=1&tableid=11&tablename=theme&elementid=109__true&contentlong>.
Martel, Marcel. "Estates General of French Canada." The Canadian Encyclopedia. The Canadian Encyclopedia, 16 Dec. 2013. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/estates-general-of-french-canada/>.
Visit to Quebec by Queen Elizabeth II. Seen as the symbol of past colonialism, visit was not popular and opposed. Quebec City was the scene of large demonstrations and of police brutality
Estates General of French Canada began. Very nationalist outlook, Francophones wanted defined borders (Quebec). Tensions among French Canadians, western Francophones felt deserted.
St. Jean Baptiste riots in Montreal. Demonstrators protested the presence of Pierre E. Trudeau. Trudeau gained much support across Canada for standing up to the demonstrators.
A department of Immigration is organized