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Historiographical study of Sons and Lovers

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didouch racha9a

on 6 January 2015

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Transcript of Historiographical study of Sons and Lovers

Biographie of the author

David Herbert

Lawrence
(
1885-1930
)was an English novelist, poet,playwright,essayist,literary critic and painter.Born in
Eastwood
town ,
Nottinghamshire England
, Lawrence was the fourth son of a literate miner ,grew in a coal mining town .his working class background and the tensions between his parents provided the raw materials for a number of his early works.The latter represents an extended reflection upon dehumanizing effects of modernity and Industrialisation.
Summary of the novel
Sons and Lovers
is a
1913
novel by
D.H Lawrence,
divided into two parts the first part focuses on
Mrs.Morel
and her unhappy mariage to a drinking miner.She takes comfort in her four children (sons) especially
William
the eldest one who later moves away from the family to London, he dies few years later .
Paul
(
Lawrence
) her youngest son becomes the focus of her life.In part two everything turns around the struggle of Paul in his society, family and the different complicated relationships with all the women he had met in his life.
Conclusion
The Outline
Working Conditions
If miners had a high standard of living, they had a low standard of work. There were many dangers, including roof collapses and explosions and many deaths occurred. From
1851
inspectors recorded fatalities and many respiratory illnesses were common. Indeed, illness plagued all the mining population, as did premature death. As the coal industry expanded greatly, so did the number of deaths, roof falls being the most common.
Payment:
Miners were paid by the amount and quality of the coal mined. Qhality of coal was what owners required , but managers decided what quality coal was.
What about Eastwood?
Introduction
Sons and Lovers
is one of those millions novel where a man tells his life story with many details about everything he witnssed .
Through this presentation we will see if
D.H Lawrence
speaks only about his own world or reflects History.
Introduction

Biographie of D.H Lawrence
Summary of the novel
Study of history in the novel and in history
1- Industrila Revolutio
2- Coal mining
3- working conditions inside the mines
4- Strikes of the miners
5- Explosions in the mines of Eastwood
6- child labor
Victorian Society:
1- social life.
2- women

Conclusion
Historiographical study of

Sons and Lovers

Hachelef dounia ouided
&

Chetouane Soumia.


Eastwood
is a small coal mining town in
Nottinghameshire
in the
UK
.Coal has been mined in the area for nearly
700
years,deep mining came to an end in
1985
with the closure of
Moorgreen, Pye Hill
and
Underwood collieries
.
The town expanded rapidely during the Industrial Revolution and in the eighteenth century .By
1880
the population had increased to
4,500
,there were ten coal mines the majority of the people who worked for the coal mines were male ,most women were
housewives ,children were desperate to reach the age of
14
so that they could start working in the coal mines.
Some important events
In
1871
coal production commenced ,Robert Harison was the general manager
In
1880
a fire destroyed the headstock and winding rope of the upshaft which temporarly halted production
In
1907
an electric plant was installed at moorgreen to supply power to the Eastwood collieries
Industrial Revolution:
1870_1914
time of industrialisation and reform in
Britain
By
1870
the UK was the most industrialised and the most powerful country in the world ,however the industrial revolution had created sever social problems ,which were to be found especially in the area of housing ,education and health care.
The major measures of reform can be grouped into four categories :
1- Parlimentary reform
2- Worker’s rights
3- Education
4- Social welfare
Coal mining
Coal
was needed in vast quantities for the industrial revolution to
fuel

steam engines
and
furnaces
, as a result coal mines got deeper and deeper and coal mining became more dangerous .Regardless of all these dangers ,there was a huge increase in the production of coal in Britain vast amounts were found in the Midlands.
"The coal mine is the scene of a multitude of the most terrifying calamities, and these come directly from the selfishness of the bourgeoisie.”
said Frederick Engels
the poor conditions in the mines,and the danger that British miners had to face everyday working there created a sort of seperation between them and the owners of the mines ,from this point conflicts between the two parties started to get bigger until it reached the level of battles and strikes against the capitalist bosses for better pay and safer working conditions.
In
1880’s
there were a series of strikes by unskilled workers in an attempt to improve their conditions like DOCKER’S strike
1889
.
The emergence of Trade Unions for skilled workers throughtout the nineteenth century ,that allowed allthe workers to stand for their rights as the right to strike.
Explosions of the mines
Coal-fired steam engines powered England's booming economy, whether in factories or on the rail network. Those in power made huge fortunes from coal discovered under their land. Conditions in coal mines were terrible. Women and children were employed to pull the wagons of coal from the coal face to the shaft foot – these workers were smaller, and cheaper, than a properly trained horse. Underground work gets very hot, so often people worked more or less naked. Sir Humphrey Davy’s safety lamp, invented in
1815
, enabled workers to reach deeper levels, but it was taken on very slowly. Various methods of ventilating mines were invented, but none was widely adopted until 1849 when compressed air first became possible. Ten years later the employment of children under 12 was made illegal. This poster reports a terrible explosion in a Staffordshire coalmine in which
25
lives were lost
According to Griffin in his book Mining in the East Midlands 1550-1947.
« there were some important explosions that killed few people ,Annesley was the site of the most serious explosion in Nottinghamshire ,seven men were killed as against the 95 killed at Haswell colliery,Dunham.
Child Labor
Child labor during the industrial revolution
According to Friedrich Engels in his book Condition of the Working Class in England .
“Let us turn now to the most important branch of British mining, the iron and coal mines, which the Children’s Employment Commission treats in common”

“ In the Cornish mines about
19,000
men, and
11,000
women and children are employed, in part above and in part below ground. With in the mines below ground, men and boys above twelve years old are employed almost exclusively. According to him conditons of work were so bad ; specialy for children who should not be there" .
“The children and young people who are employed in transporting coal and iron-stone all complain of being over-tired.  Even in the most recklessly conducted industrial establishments there is no such universal and exaggerated overwork”
Victorian society social life family
"The husband works the whole day through, perhaps the wife and also the elder children, all in different places; they meet night and morning only, all under perpetual temptation to drink; what family life is possible under such conditions? Yet the working-man cannot escape from the family, must live in the family, and the consequence is a perpetual succession of family troubles, domestic quarrels, most demoralizing for parents and children alike. neglect of all domestic duties, neglect of the children, especially, is only too common among the English working people...“
(Engels 1845/1975 4:424-5)
Women
1-

Women As a sexual need
: according to Thomas La Queur women were treated as a sexual need especially among the working class ,women were just a sort of objects that men needed for phisical reasons , they were here to stay at home, rise children and be the good wives .
2-Woman in work:
accordin to pinchbeck, the women workers was produced by the industrial revolution, and t since that time women have taken an increasing share in the world work « in every industrial system in the past, women have been engaged in a productive work and thier contributions have been recognized as an indesponsable factor. »
 This last part was basicly niglected in the novel.
To what extent can we say that Sons and lovers is a mirror to reality ?
Can we consider it as a Historical document?
Sons and lovers portrayals the life of working_class mining community,it gives a clear and surprising amount of details about the living and the working conditions of a miner .
According to Brian Finney in his book, Critical studies,Sons and Lovers Finn said that everything it contains will have happened exactely in the way it is shown to happen in the novel .
The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844, by Frederick Engels
 Sex and Desire During the Industrial Revolution by Thomas La Queur .
Mining in the East Midlands 1550-1947 by A.R. Griffin
 Women Workers and the Industriual Revolution by Evy Pinchbeck
http://www.healeyhero.co.uk/rescue/eastwood.htm
http://www.eastwoodonline.co.uk/eastwood-history.asp
http://www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/politics/reform.htm
Refrences
Full transcript