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Destruction of the Dzungars
Transcript of Destruction of the Dzungars
Events of the Genocide
According to book 5 of "History of Civilizations of Central Asia"
The Dzungars posed a great threat to the Qing empire and its neighbours
Standing Cavalry of 80,000 - 100,000 men
Caused by a quarrel over sucession
Galdan Cerings death in 1745 started a quarrel between his sons
In 1755, the Qing Dynasty attacked Ghulja, and captured the Dzunghar khan.
The Qing emperor took this opportunity to send in an army of 50,000 men
Met almost no resistance and destroyed them in a period of 100 days
Over the next two years, the Manchus and Mongol armies of the Qing Dynasty destroyed the remnants of the Dzunghar khanate.
The Qing Emporer intentionally ordered their destruction to gain control over Central Asia
This tells us they had the intent to destroy the Dzungar population as a whole.
Extent of the Qing Dynasty in the 18th Century
Other Related Genocides
Painting By Witness
Population and Death Count
Estimated population of Dzungars before their destruction
In a widely cited account of the war, Wei Yuan wrote that
40% of the Dzungar households were killed by smallpox
20% fled to Russia or Kazakh tribes
30% were killed by the Qing army of Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols
Another Scholar, Wen-Djang Chu wrote that 80% of the 600,000 or more Dzungars (especially Choros, Olot, Khoid, Baatud and Zakhchin) were destroyed by disease and attack
Other Related Genocides
The Armenian Genocide was very similar to this case in many ways
Ottoman government's systematic extermination of its minority Armenian subjects by the Turkish people
The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915
Killing of the able-bodied male population
Deportation of women, children, the elderly
According to "The Remaining Documents of Talat Pasha"
Talat Pasha was one of the triumvirate known as the Three Pashas that de facto ruled the Ottoman Empire during the First World War
According to the documents, the number of Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire before 1915 stood at 1,256,000. The number plunged to 284,157 two years later in 1917, to a mere 22.6%.
The usual Turkish argument is that the deportations were necessary because the Armenians had allied themselves with the Russian army in wartime
This means the Genocide was committed by the Turks due to them feeling "threatened" by the Armenians
Qianlong ordered- "Show no mercy at all to these rebels. Only the old and weak should be saved. Our previous campaigns were too lenient." The Qianlong Emperor said that it didnt oppose the peaceful principles of Confucianism because the Dzungars were classified barbarian and subhuman. Qianlong proclaimed that "To sweep away barbarians is the way to bring stability to the interior.", that the Dzungars "turned their back on civilization.", and that "Heaven supported the emperor." in the destruction of the Dzungars. According to the Encyclopedia of genocide and crimes against humanity, Volume 3, under Article II of the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Qianlong's actions against the Dzungars were genocide, as he massacred the vast majority of the Dzungar population and enslaved or banished the rest, and had "Dzungar culture" destroyed and forgotten. Qianlong's campaign constituted the "eighteenth-century genocide par excellence."
We accuse the Qianlong Emperor for ordering the extermination of the Dzungars due to their leader Amursana’s rebellion against Qing rule in 1755, after the first dynasty which conquered the Dzungar Khanate with his support. The genocide was carried out mainly by Manchu Bannermen and Khalkhas, who were part of the Qing force sent to crush the Dzungars.
From UNESCO's History of Ancient civilizations of Central Asia
A collaboration painting of Chinese and European painters of the first Campaign Against the Dzungars
Destroying their homes
taking free cattle and resources
Killing a group of people
Committed to destroy the race/culture Genocide
Shows they had the intent to kill
Genocide Convention classifies this as genocide
Qing empire wanted the land
The Rwandan Genocide was the massacre of the Tutsi by the Hutu government in Rwanda during April 7 – July 15, 1994
In 100 days millions were killed, 20% of the population
The Hutu knew the Tutsi were going to be a strong enemy, so they killed their leaders
Happened during a peace treaty, genocide was quickly ended and damage was minimized
From this evidence we can conclude that the Qianlong Emperor is responsible for ordering the mass killings of the Dzungars which are acts of Genocide and should be punished accordingly.
Conditions during the Armenian Genocide
Definition of Genocide
According to Article 2 and 3 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide
"Article II: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Article III: The following acts shall be punishable:
(b) Conspiracy to commit genocide;
(c) Direct and public incitement to commit genocide;
(d) Attempt to commit genocide;
(e) Complicity in genocide.
A collaboration painting of Chinese and European painters of the Second Campaign Against the Dzungars
How are these related and does it show us?
We relate to these two genocides because they are more recent genocides with more evidence with relations to what happens during genocides.
The cause of many genocides is fear, ie. Hutu afraid of Tutsi, Turks threatened by Armenians
Involves killings of the masses through various means
Shows no signs of mercy regarding sex or age
Clear violation of basic human rights
Breaches Act 2 and 3 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide