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Biology Theory Catastrophism
Transcript of Biology Theory Catastrophism
and Uniformitarism: Author of this Theory: Etimology: The word catastrophism comes from catastrophe + -ism 1865–70. For example, a catastrophist might conclude that the Rocky Mountains were created in a single rapid event such as a great earthquake rather than by imperceptibly slow uplift and erosion. A prominent British theologian, Bishop James Ussher (1581–1656) added together the ages of people in the Bible and calculated that Earth must have been created in 4004 B.C. His calculation implied that all of the features of Earth's surface must be less than 6,000 years old and were therefore, formed as the result of violent upheavals or catastrophes. Catastrophism has been developed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Baron Georges Cuvier (1769–1832), a French anatomist, tried to reconcile the fossil record with Biblical history. Cuvier stated that different groups of fossil organisms were created and then became extinct as the result of geologic catastrophes, the last of which was the great flood described in the Bible. Each catastrophe, according to Cuvier, killed the fossilized organisms and deposited the sediment that solidified into the rock surrounding the fossils. A new concept, uniformitarianism, grew from the work of the Scottish geologist James Hutton (1726–1797) and eventually replaced catastrophism. " Uniformitarianism is the opposite of the Catastrophism. Shows that there were changes in the earth but very littles and in a long peior of time. Hutton suggested that Earth had a very long history that could be understood in terms of currently observable processes such as the weathering of rocks and erosion of sediment. Therefore, catastrophic events were not needed to explain Earth's history. But in the other hand the concept of catastrophism has been revived with the discovery of large meteorite impact structures and evidence of mass extinctions in the fossil record. The most notable of these events was the asteroid impact marking the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods about 65 million years ago, which coincides with the extinction of the dinosaurs. Over the years there appears a new theory. By that appears actualism. Actualism combines these two big theories. However, there are times when we will be hit with large meteors, or have an enormous tsunami or massive volcano, that make a sudden, major, abrupt change in either local, regional, or global geology. Yes, everything that we see happening today has been going on for 4.7 billion years just like we see it when we look out our kitchen windows. That seems very fair, because that's exactly what we see. Everything's just happening... then BOOM there's a 9.4 megathrust earthquake off of Sumatra that spawns a huge tsunami that scours some Indian Ocean areas clean, and fills other areas up with natural garbage. Or it can change a very high mountain into a small one by the pass of the years. Here is one video of Catastrophism