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Art History Green Hill Part 6
Transcript of Art History Green Hill Part 6
Oil on Canvas
131.5 × 281 cm (51.8 × 110.6 in)
The State Russian Museum (formerly the Russian Museum of His Imperial Majesty Alexander III)
St Petersburg. RUSSIA Efimovich Repin
1844-1930 u.s.s.r. Il Ritornante
1918. The Vexation of the Thinker
Place of Creation: Paris, France
Style: Metaphysical art
Dimensions: 46.4 x 38.1 cm
Gallery: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, CA, USA Giorgio de Chirico
acclaimed by the surreallists as a forerunner of their movement, founded the school of metaphysical painting.
After the death of his father in 1905 De Chirico, attracted by the German neoromantic school of painting, moved to Munich. There he saw the paintings of Arnold Böcklin and discovered the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche, which exercised a great influence on him. Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978) Enigma of the Hour
1911 Ruins by the Sea by Arnold Böcklin (1827-1902). 1880. Oil on panel. When Zarathustra arrived at the edge of the forest, he came upon a town. Many people had gathered there in the marketplace to see a tightrope walker who had promised a performance. The crowd, believing that Zarathustra was the ringmaster come to introduce the tightrope walker, gathered around to listen. And Zarathustra spoke to the people:
What is the greatest thing you can experience? It is the hour of your greatest contempt. The hour in which even your happiness becomes loathsome to you, and so also your reason and virtue.
The hour when you say: What good is my happiness? It is poverty and filth and wretched contentment. But my happiness should justify existence itself!
The hour when you say: What good is my reason? Does it long for knowledge as the lion for his prey? It is poverty and filth and wretched contentment!
The hour when you say: What good is my virtue? It has not yet driven me mad! How weary I am of my good and my evil! It is all poverty and filth and wretched contentment!
The hour when you say: What good is my justice? I do not see that I am filled with fire and burning coals. But the just are filled with fire and burning coals!
The hour when you say: What good is my pity? Is not pity the cross on which he is nailed who loves man? But my pity is no crucifixion!
Have you ever spoken like this? Have you ever cried like this? Ah! If only I had heard you cry this way!
It is not your sin -- it is your moderation that cries to heaven; your very sparingness in sin cries to heaven!
Where is the lightning to lick you with its tongue? Where is the madness with which you should be cleansed?
Behold, I teach you the Overman! He is that lightning, he is that madness! Arnold Böcklin (1827-1901)
Attack of the Pirates
on Mahogany Panel Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978) Max Ernst(1891-1976)
Photograph taken in 1948 "Europe After The Rain" -
1942 Decalcomania Frottage Birthday
Oil on canvas
1942 She met Max Ernst at a party in London in 1937 (apparently around the same time he was doing the rituals in Cornwall). The artists bonded and returned to Paris together where Ernst promptly separated from his wife. In 1938 they left Paris and settled in Saint Martin d’Ardèche in the garrigue, in the south of France. The new couple collaborated and supported each other’s artistic development. With the outbreak of World War II, as noted, Max Ernst was arrested by French authorities for being a “hostile alien.” Thanks to the intercession of Paul Éluard, and other friends including the American journalist Varian Fry he was discharged a few weeks later.
Soon after the Nazi occupation of France, Ernst was arrested again, this time by the Gestapo. He managed to escape and flee to America with the help of Peggy Guggenheim, a sponsor of the arts. After Ernst’s arrest, a devastated Carrington fled to Spain. Paralysing anxiety and growing delusions culminated in a final breakdown at the British embassy in Madrid. Her parents intervened and had her institutionalized. She was given cardiazol, a powerful GABA stimulator that was eventually banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other authorities. After being released into the care of a nurse who took her to Lisbon, Carrington ran away and sought refuge in the Mexican Embassy. Meanwhile, Ernst had been extricated from Europe with the help of Peggy Guggenheim, but Ernst and Carrington had experienced so much misery that they were unable to reconnect. Leonora Carrington 1917–2011 Leonora Carrington
(April 6,1917 – May 25, 2011 ) was a British-born Mexican artist, surrealist painter, novelist – and former girlfriend of Max Ernst. She lived most of her life in Mexico City. Carrington has passed away at 94. Part of her life is a sad love story surrounded by passionate art, involving Max Ernst. Dorothea Tanning The House Opposite, Leonora Carrington, 1945 Leonora Carrington at her easel, Mexico, 1956. René Magritte (Belgian, 1898-1967) Time Transfixed,
Oil on canvas
1938 Paul Delvaux (Belgian, 1897–1994) Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Paul Delvaux Lunar City
Oil on Canvas The Metaphysical School Surrealism The Nazis burned some 5,000 artworks that they had labeled “degenerate” in the courtyard of Berlin’s fire station on March 20th 1939. Seven hundred of these paintings, drawings and sculptures, rounded up from museums and galleries throughout Germany in a thorough purge of modernism (including Bauhaus, Dada, Expressionism, and Cubism), had been displayed at a “Degenerate Art Exhibit” in Munich in 1937. Although children had been banned from viewing the exhibit, it had drawn three times more people than the Nazis’ “Great German Art Exhibition,” which had been approved by Hitler and was on display just a few hundred yards away. Only a few Jewish artists had contributed significantly to modernism in Germany (and only six of 112 artists in the “degenerate” show were Jewish), yet modern art in all its forms was proscribed by the Nazis as un-German and and reflective of Jewish “racial degeneracy.”
“As soon as I have carried out my program for Germany, I shall take up painting. I feel that I have it in my soul to become one of the great artists of the age and that future historians will remember me not for what I have done for Germany, but for my art.”
—Adolf Hitler Hans Adolf Bühler
German(1877-1951) The Homecoming
from the series Love
21.8 x 21.0 cm
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra Hannah Höch German
1889 – 1978 August Sander
German 1876 – 1964
Secretary at West German radio in Cologne
1931, printed by August Sander in the 1950s Metropolis, 1928
The great German Expressionist, was famous for his unique and grotesque style. Although Hitler's Nazi regime destroyed many of Otto Dix's works, the majority of his paintings can still be seen in museums throughout Germany. Otto Dix (1891-1969) St. Christopher IV, 1939 Mother and Eva, 1935 Triumph of Death, 1934 Prager Street, 1920 Dadaism Nazi Poster 1933 Working Maidens,
by Leopold Schmutzler (1940)
Nazi art policy reflected the regime's "blood and soil" ideology: scenes depicting the hard but "honorable" life of workers and peasants were among the regime's preferred pictorial motifs. This painting by Leopold Schmutzler (1864-1940) was exhibited in the "Great German Art Exhibition" of 1940 in Munich. Arno Breker,
Great German Art Exhibition 1939 Max Beckmann 1884 – 1950 The Dada movement, formed in Zurich 1916, was a reaction to World War I, its anarchic iconoclasm appealing to the artists George Grosz, Kurt Schwitters, Max Ernst and John Heartfield who organized the First International Dada Fair in Berlin in 1920. Also a reaction to the horrors of the war was the Neue Sachlichkeit/New Objectivity movement, which expressed the bitter social criticism of George Grosz, Max Beckmann, and Otto Dix. Raoul Hausmann: Elasticum, 1920, collage and gouache
Courtesy of the Galerie Berinson, Berlin Raoul Hausmann and Hannah Höch at the opening of the First International Dada Fair held at the Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin, June 30, 1920. German Family
Great German Exhibition 1940 Family 1920 George Grosz 1893 – 1959 George Grosz.
"A satirist is a man whose flesh creeps so at ugly and savage and incongruous aspects of society that he has to express them as brutally and nakedly as possible to get relief. He seeks to put into expressive forms his grisly obsessions the way a bacteriologist seeks to isolate a virus or a dangerous micro-organism.... Looking at Grosz's drawings you are more likely to feel a grin of pain than to burst out laughing. Instead of letting you be the superior bystander laughing in an Olympian way at somebody absurd, Grosz makes you identify yourself with the sordid and pitiful object." Introduction to Grosz's Interregnum (N.Y., 1936 Hitler and Goebbels at the
Degenerate Art Exhibition Picasso 1930s Picasso 1940s Still Life with Skull, Leeks and Pitcher, 14 March 1945. Pablo Picasso
Still Life with Mandolin 1924 Picasso 1920s Pablo Picasso,
Still life with Guitar, 1942.
Oil on canvas. Jug, candle and enamel pan
Oil on canvas
Pablo Picasso 1945
82 x 106 cm Mickalene Thomas,
Le Dejeuner sur l'herbe: les trois femmes noires,
Rhinestone, acrylic and enamel
on wood panel The Eye of Silence Henri Matisse (French, 1869-1954) The Egyptian Curtain
(oil on canvas, 1948) The Blue Window
(oil on canvas, 1912) PICASSO, Pablo Still Life with Chair-Caning Paris, [May] 1912 Still Life with a Bottle of Rum, 1911
Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881–1973)
Oil on canvas Analytical Cubism 1908-1911 Synthetic Cubism 1912- Juan Gris
1882 – 1963 Braque
Still-Life with Violin and Pitcher
(1910) Leger Still Life with a Fruit Dish, 1936. Georges Braque
Still Life with Pink Fish 1937. Georges Braque
Still Life with Mandolin, 1933 Braque
Still Life on a Table'Gillette'
1914 Atelier I.
Date: 1949 Still Life. Dishes
Oil on Canvas 1920 Le Pichet Blanc,
Oil on canvas, Le Corbusier
1887-1965 Le Corbusier
1920. Oil on canvas,
31 7/8 x 39 1/4 in. The chapel of Notre Dame du Haut Ronchamp Chapel 1955 Still Life with a Beer Mug,
1921, oil on canvas Andre Derain Derain: Still Life, 1911 Derain: Still Life, 1911 Still Life with
Earthenware Jug and White Napkin André Derain (French, 1880-1954),
Still Life with Rabbit, 1938 Still Life
Andre Derain 1912 Andre Derain
still life on the kitchen table
Derain, André (1880-1954)
1911 Roger de La Fresnaye
1885 - 1925
Still Life with Bottle 1913.
Still Life with Coffee Pot and Melon
c. 1911 Metzinger Jean Metzinger(1883-1956)
Nautical Still Life
1953c. Jean Metzinger
Still Life 1911
Jean Metzinger (1883-1956)
Fruit and a Jug on a Table
1916 The Purists The Cubists Piet Mondrian
Still Life with Gingerpot (1911) Still Life with Gingerpot II
1911 Pier and Ocean 1915 Piet Mondrian
Composition with Gray
and Light Brown,
1918 Still life -
1922 Fernand Léger (French, 1881-1955). Still Life with Candlestick, 1922. Ben Nicholson Ben Nicholson, Still Life (Lorca)June 1949 Ben Nicholson, Still Life with Knife, Jug and Lemon, 1927 Still Life, 1947, oil on board, 23.5" x 25". Aberdeen Art Gallery Still Life, 1947, oil on board, 23.5" x 25". Magritte Rene Magritte, This is not a pipe, 1929 Rene Magritte Personal Values Memory of a voyage 1952 Salvador Dali Morandi Giorgio Morandi
Still Life (The Blue Vase)
1920. Oil on canvas
49.5 x 52 cm. Morandi Still Life 1955 Georgio Morandi Still Life 1919 Carlo Carra The Italian
Metaphysical School Morandi, Giorgio (1890-1964) - 1918 Metaphysical Still Life (The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia) Metaphysical Still-life, 1916, De Chirico The Evangelical still life Giorgio Morandi
Still Life 1955 1929 Philip Guston the Painter's Table,
oil on canvas, 1973 American Neo-Dada and POP 'Still life: Autumn fashion'
Patrick Caulfield, 1978 Wayne Thiebaud's
Cakes and ice creams Roy Lichtenstein
Still Life with Palette 1972 Roy Lichtenstein
"Cubist Still Life with Playing Cards"
1970s Roy Lichtenstein 1923-1997 Tom Wesselman Tom Wesselmann
Still Life No. 34 Tom Wesselmann
Still Life #35 (1963)
at L&M Arts Still Life #12
Tom Wesselmann Tom Wesselmann.
Still Life #30. April 1963 Tom Wesselmann,
«Still Life # 28»,1963 British Pop $he
1958–1961 Andy Warhol Campbells Soup Pink Andy Warhol Skull 1976 Jasper Johns Conceptual Michael Craig Martin Michael Craig-Martin at Gagosian Gallery in Chelsea Michael Craig-Martin, Tokyo Sunsets 2, 2008. Digital Inkjet print Post Modern Human skull in space" (oil on canvas) by Damien Hirst, Chocolate Grinder
Oil on canvas Requiem, White Flowers and Butterflies, 2008 Skull with Ashtray and Lemon, 2006/07 Damien Hirst The Futurists Vanitas Still Life with a Skull and a Writing Quill, 1628
Pieter Claesz (Dutch, 1596/97–1660)
Oil on wood
9 1/2 x 14 1/8 in. (24.1 x 35.9 cm) Claesz_1625 Vanitas- Pieter Boel
Large Vanitas Still-Life 1663
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lille, France
Painting, Oil on canvas, 207 x 260 cm 1907 Geranium Still Life Natalia Goncharova (Russian artist, 1881-1962) Linen
1912 Rayonism Still Life With Beer
1881-1964 Mikhail Larionov 1881-1964 Still Life With Beer
1904 1915 Spiral (Museum of Modern Art, New York City) Lyubov Popova Still Life with Tray
c1912 Lyubov Popova died when she was young so she left not many paintings after herself and it is very difficult to find one for sale. Kazimir Malevich
Genre: still life
Technique: gouache, watercolor
Dimensions: 52.5 x 51.8 cm
Gallery: The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia Musical Instrument 1913 Nude Descending a Staircase (No. 2). 1912.
Oil on canvas
57 7/8 x 35 1/8 inches (147 x 89.2 cm) Marcel Duchamp,
American (born France),
1887-1968. On March 18, 1912, Marcel Duchamp received an unexpected visit from his two brothers, Jacques Villon and Raymond Duchamp-Villon, at his studio in Neuilly-sur-Seine. They informed their younger brother that the hanging committee of the Salon des Indépendants exhibition in Paris, which included themselves, Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, and others, had rejected his Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2. These Cubist painters had refused to display the painting on the grounds that "A nude never descends the stairs--a nude reclines." Although the work was shown in the Salon de la Section d'Or in October 1912, Duchamp never forgave his brothers and former colleagues for censoring his work. Miro Still Life with old shoe 1937 Joan Miró. Still Life I.
Montroig and Paris 1922-23 Joan Miro Still Life II 1922. Still Life - Fast Moving 1956
Salvador Dali Museum, St. Petersburg, F.L., United States Of America
Oil on canvas, 160 x 126 cm Salvador Dali 1904 - 1989. Still Life - Salvador Dali
1924 Salvador Dali
1947 Animated Still Life 2 Metamorphosis of Narcissus,
oil on canvas,
51.1 x 78.1 cm
In the first decade of the 20th century, a new movement started from Italy, which can be considered as a part of expressionism. Futurism was launched by Filippo Marinetti, an Italian artist, in 1909 with the Futurist Manifesto. This was the first amongst the manifestos, but later on this form of announcing a new artistic movement became more popular. Umberto Boccioni States of Mind: The Farewells -
1911 Not to be Reproduced (La reproduction interdite, 1937) Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam Stanley Spencer,
1891 – 1959
The Resurrection, Cookham, 1924-7,
Oil on canvas,
Copyright Tate, London. Jesus in the Wilderness
1938-9 Christ of Saint John of the Cross
Oil on canvas
205 cm × 116 cm (80.7 in × 45.67 in)
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow
Tate collection [On paper, unique, Paul Nash
watercolour on paper
73.5 x 86 cm John Nash
Over the Top"
(1917) Parisian Suburb c1919
Chaim Soutine was born nr Minsk and attended art school on Vilnius, Lithuania. Soutine was an individualistic Expressionist painter known best for his studies of choirboys and waiters, as well as poultry and sides of beef.
During 1913 and at the age of 20, a Patron allowed him to enrol at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. It was there that he met Marc Chagall and Amadeo Modigliani, with whom he shared a Studio.
As a registered Jew under the Nazi occupation of France, Soutine took refuge in the countryside of France Graham Sutherland
tapestry 'Christ in Glory',
Coventry Cathedral View down the Nave of Coventry Cathedral, 1951, by Sir Basil Spence ... Coventry Cathedral, November 15, 1940
Oil on plywood
30 x 25 ins
© Manchester City Art Galleries Baptistry, Coventry Cathedral
Coventry Cathedral (1956-62) by Basil Spence. Showing the font (made from a boulder from a hillside near Bethlehem) and Baptistry window by John Piper. David Bomberg 1890-1957 The Mud Bath
From the Tate collection
Oil on canvas Expressionism Vorticism Ghetto Theatre
Oil on canvas
75 x 62.5 cm
Signed and dated 1920
Ben Uri Collection Hear, O Israel -
Oil on canvas
Jewish Museum of NYC. The Mountains of Asturias, Spain1935
Oil on panel
20 x 26 inches; 50.8 x 66 cm Frank Auerbach
Primose Hill (1980)
oil on board,
147.3 x 121.9 cm,
Private Collection, Courtesy of Marlborough Fine Art Frank Auerbach Head of Gerda Boehm (1978-9) oil on board, 56.5 x 71.7 cm, Private Collection, Courtesy of Marlborough Fine Art Frank Auerbach b 1931 Dalston Junction, Ridley Road Street Market, Stormy Morning
Oil on board
139.7 x 183 cm 55 x 72" Leon Kossoff b 1926 Glenn Brown, The Aesthetic Poor (for Tim Buckley) after John Martin
Oil on Canvas The Day The World Turned Auerbach
Oil on canvas 56 x 50.5. cm 22 x 20"
saatchi-gallery Open-Air Show of
Paintings (1974) The Bulldozer Exhibits
Stark symbols of the blockage in Soviet artistic life were the scandalous bulldozer exhibits in Moscow in 1974. "Dissident" artists who refused to accept official Soviet artistic organizations and aesthetics, set their work out for open public viewing in Moscow's Izmailovsky Park. Although much of the work seems, in retrospect, to have been mildly innovative, ham-handed cultural bureaucrats, upset that nobody asked their permission, chased away artists, viewers, and some of the paintings by driving through a couple bulldozers. Second Fall Open-Air Show of Paintings (1974)
soviethistory.org Paul Klee
1879–1940 Wassily Kandinsky Jackson Pollock Lavender Mist Frank Stella born 1936 Montmarte 1919 Frida Kahlo 'Taube',
76cm x 64cm
Imperial War Museum, , CRW Nevinson
1889 – 1946 French troops resting,
oil on canvas
Imperial War Museum, London, UK Robert Rauschenberg I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold
Oil on cardboard
35 1/2 x 30 in. (90.2 x 76.2 cm)
Alfred Stieglitz Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art
New York Charles Demuth
(American, 1883–1935) This particular painting pays homage to a poem by William Carlos Williams. Buildings Lancaster,
(1930 Incense of a New Church
1921 My Egypt,
1927 Edward Hopper
Oil on canvas,
30 x 60 in;
The Art Institute of Chicago Georgia O'Keeffe
1887-1986 Flower Abstraction,
Oil on canvas,
48 × 30 in. (121.9 × 76.2 cm).
Whitney Museum of American Art, Summer Days,
Oil on canvas,
36 × 30 in. (91.4 × 76.2 cm).
Whitney Museum of American Art,
New York; Diego Rivera Minimalism Drift of Summer, 1964
ink on paper mounted on board
12 x 12 inches (30.5 x 30.5 cm) Agnes Martin 1912 – 2004 Robert Rauschenberg
Retroactive I, 1964,
Oil and silkscreen ink on canvas,
84 x 60 in. (213.4 x 152.4 cm),
Hartford, Connecticut © Robert Rauschenberg / Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY Black Columns in a Landscape, 1919
Watercolor, pen, and ink on paper
8 x 10 3/8 in. (20.4 x 26.3 cm)
The Berggruen Klee Collection, 1987 (1987.455.1) Guernica
Oil on Canvas Eadweard Muybridge
1830–1904 Sigmar Polke Albert Oehlen Anselm Keifer Joseph Beuys "Everyone is an artist." Gerhardt Richter Rauch, born in Leipzig in 1960, is a protagonist of the "New Leipzig School". Hatz (Hunt)
oil on linen
210 x 250cm Neo Rauch's works are highly esteemed by the international art market. Additionally, they attract great numbers of visitors in large one-man shows, for instance at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in 2007, in 2010 in the twin exhibition "Begleiter" (Companions), which was shown simultaneously in the Museum of Visual Arts in Leipzig and the 'Pinakothek der Moderne' Munich, or in the Museum Frieder Burda in Baden-Baden in 2011. Works by Neo Rauch are in possession of renowned international museums and collections like the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Hamburger Kunsthalle Piet Mondrian 1872-1944 Wyndham Lewis The artist Edward Wadsworth, who along with Wyndham Lewis was one of the leading lights of the English abstract art movement known as Vorticism (which like the Futurists in Italy, held a pre WWI ideal of machine supremacy and efficiency that was terminally affected by the atrocities of the conflict) was instrumental in designing many of the Dazzle patterns that were then transcribed onto the hulls of the ships by a whole army of painters. Wadsworth’s interest in ships and maritime themes continued after the war, an example being the wonderful “Dazzle Ships in Dry Dock, Liverpool from 1919. Fauvism Orphic Cubism
Jacques Villon 1875 - 1963 Robert Delauney 1885-1941
Sonia Delauney 1885-1979 Tour Eiffel
1911. Evolution 1911
oil on canvas
178 x 85 cm
Gallery: Gemeentemuseum, the Hague, Netherlands Broadway Boogie Woogie
Oil on canvas
Museum of Modern Art
New York Amédée Ozenfant
1886-1966 Chaim Soutine 1849-1943 Weeping Woman (Dora),
oil on canvas painted
(60 49 cm, 23 19 ¼ inches) Edward Burra
1905 – 1976 Harlem 1934
Brush and ink and gouache on paper
794 x 571 mm
Watercolour Simultaneous Windows on
Oil on Panel
Germany 'Harran II'
Polymer and fluorescent polymer paint on canvas,
120 x 240 inches.
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Sonia Delauney
Rythme 1938 The Red Studio
Oil on Canvas
181 x 219.1 cm
MoMA New York Odalisque Seated with Arms Raised, Green Striped Chair,
Oil on canvas.
25 5/8 x 19 3/4 in. (65.1 x 50.2 cm). Chester Dale Collection. National Gallery of Art,
Washington, D.C. Jazz
Collage Nabis Pierre Bonnard 1867 – 1947 The Dining Room in the Country
Oil on canvas
161.3 x 203.2 cm
Gallery: Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA Intimism The French Window
(Morning at Le Cannet)
Oil on canvas,
33-7/8 x 44-1/8 inches
The Saintly Women at the Tomb,
c. 1894. 73.5cm x 99.5cm. Maurice Denis 1870 – 1943 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880 – 1938 Self Portrait
Oil on Canvas
7.25 × 24 in (69.2 × 61 cm)
Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College,
Oberlin, Ohio Female Artist
Oil on Canvas
101 x 76 cm