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Beginning of the French Revolution

Beginning of the French Revolution
by

Dave Wingate

on 16 April 2015

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Transcript of Beginning of the French Revolution

The French Revolution
Louis XVI
was an weak, ineffective king
married Austrian Marie Antoinette (political marriage)
marriage was unpopular
- no children for years - spread rumours
- she spent large sums of money
- still animosity between France and Austria
Jacques Neckar
finance minister
put France into high debt
his successors were unable to stave off bankruptcy
Phase I: The Liberal Revolution
Estates-General
limited power but right to veto and create new taxes
Three Estates
- First Estate - Clergy
- Second Estate - Nobility
- Third Estate - Everyone else (middle and lower classes)
Third Estate had @26 million - other two estates 200,000
Tennis Court Oath
June 20, 1789
Third Estate declared to remain in session until Consitution was drafted
Forced changes in the Estates
Storming of the Bastille
July 14, 1789
In response to rumours of king dissolving the assembly
freed prisoners and took gun powder
After the Bastille
Louis reinstated Neckar
adopted the tri-colour flag
limited noble power
Eventaually abolishing noble titles
Women's March on Versailles
march of mostly women on Versailles
angry at Marie Antoinette and bread prices
"Let them eat cake"
Forced royal family to move to Paris
Olympe de Gouges
Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen (1791)
Flight to Varennes
Many nobility and royalty fled France
began to plot armed return
Louis XVI fled to Austria - June21, 1791
caught - seen as treasonous
Prussian Duke of Brunswick threatened repraisals if King was harmed - backfired
Constitution
1789 - Assmebly created the Declarations of the Rights of Man and Citizen
1791 - became preamble to the new constitution
Death of Louis XVI
tried for treason
executed Jan, 1792
Death of Marie Antoinette
seen as helping the enemy
charged with treason, among other crimes
executed Oct, 1793
September Massacres
Sept, 1792
Paris in fear of advancing enemy armies
In fear of prison revolts in Paris
mobs stormed prisons and murdered prisoners
Phase II:
The Reign of Terror
1792 - 1794
Start of the Reign of Terror
fear of enemy invasion and anger over food shortages
radical element of Jacobins under Maximillian Robespierre - the Mountain worked to seize power and make changes
Rise of the Jean-Paul Marat and his paper
L'Ami du Peuple
- used to bring suspicion against enemies of the Jacobins
Committee of Public Safety
April 1793 - created and given dictatorial powers
Revolutionary tribunals - death penalty for enemies of the revolution
- Robespierre solidified power with
charge and execution of 31 Girondists (moderates)
in June 1793
- resulted in murder of Marat in July
`Watch Committees`- secret police
entire country focused on war effort
economic liberties frozen to support poor
mass conscription building 800,000 soldier army
Changes during the Terror
`decristianization` resulting in the Cult of Reason and eventually the Cult of the Supreme Being
Renamed months and other radical society changes
Cult of the Supreme Being eventually brings down Robespierre
- Thermidorian Reaction - arrest and execution
of Robespierre - ending the Terror
Phase III: The Directory
1795 - 1799
The Terror
Why did it end?
because it worked
stopped anarchy within France and avoided military defeat
Aftermath
French people yearned for stability
New Constitution
5 member Directory council appointed annually
two house parliament
limited democratic rights
voted based on property
faced opposition from Royalists and Jacobins

Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
Directory became corrupt
Military successes against other nations were causing a call for peace
1797 - election led to control of the parliament in hands of other parties - Directory called the election invalid and staged a coup and censor the press
Napoleon Bonaparte had become a respected General and was invited to assist in the coup
Even after the Directory held power there were economic and legal problems
Napoleon was recalled to replace the directory in 1799 with a Consulate - which left Napoleon in a position of direct power
Bread Riots
Little Ice Age of the 1770's, El Nino, Drought
Industrial Revolution - Movement to cities
Increased bread prices
Riots in cities
War
Wars were still being fought with with most of Europe
Some military successes under Napoleon Bonaparte and other
Conquest of Belgium, Netherlands, parts of Italy.
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