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D.5 STIMULANTS

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Britta Tsai

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of D.5 STIMULANTS

Works Cited
When used abusively, nicotine can cause harmful effects on every organ in the body and is also as addictive as illegal drugs.
D.5 STIMULANTS
Physiological Effects
Increased blood pressure
Dilated pupils
Increased heart rate
Constriction of arteries
Sweating
Decrease in appetite
Increased rate of respiration
Structural Similarities
- Phenyl group (benzene with something attached which isnt hydrogen)
- Both are ethyl from the 2 carbons
- Benzine ring
- Have an terminal amine group
-Phenylethylamine
Uses and Long-Term Effects of Amphetamines
- Sympathomimetic Drug: Mimics stimulation on sympathetic nervous system
- Used as a stimulant to provide bursts of energy, a decrease in appetite and need of sleep
- Long term uses can cause damage to blood vessels, heart failure, a deficiency in the immune system, paranoia, and addiction
Uses and Long-Term Effects of Epinephrine
- Natural stimulant produced in the kidney which affects the autonomic nervous system. (heart rate, pupil dilation, breathing rate)
- Used in surgeries to increase the effectiveness of anesthetics and stop bleeding
D 5.1 & 5.2 List the Physiological Effects of Stimulants & Compare Amphetamines and Epinephrine
D 5.3
Nicotine
Nicotine (a poisonous alkaloid) is a nitrogen-containing chemical which is produced by several types of nightshade plants;
tobacco plant
Short-Term Effects

Smoker’s Cough
- Coughing protects
- Smoking damages
cilia
(protective structure in respiratory tract)
- Cilia
dysfunction
lets in harmful particles
• Bad breath and stained teeth
- Deposition of nicotine, tar, and other chemicals in tobacco, in oral cavity
- Tobacco causes reduction in saliva -> bacteria
Long-Term Effects
• Dependence & Tolerance
- Addiction causes
dependence
- Body develops
tolerance


• Peptic Ulcers
- smoking causes
acid build-up
; corrosion against tissue
- can effect esophagus, stomach, and duodenum

• Increased Risk in Heart Disease
- Nicotine attaches to receptor proteins…
- …constriction of blood canals
-
Coronary thrombosis
: blockage of blood artery due to formation of blood clots (atherosclerosis)
o one of 3 major coronary arteries
o blood clots prevent blood supply to heart



D 5.4
Caffeine
Adenosine


• Widely used stimulant, present in coffee, tea, chocolate, and colas.
• It is legal and unregulated almost everywhere (with nearly 90% of adults consuming it).

Caffeine is a mildly addictive drug that is possible to become dependent on. Caffeine may also accelerate the loss of calcium ions from bones and individuals with heart disease are strongly recommended to follow a caffeine free diet.
stimulates the central nervous system and the adrenal glands
restore or sustain mental alertness
prevents drowsiness
acts as a diuretic
increases the blood flow through the kidneys
Caffeine is rapidly absorbed and distributed to all body tissues and fluids including the central nervous system, fetal tissues (if the consumer is pregnant), and breast milk. Caffeine is removed from the body through liver metabolism and excreted in urine.
Caffeine blocks
adenosine receptors
that bind to secondary messengers like
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
. The structure of caffeine is similar to that of the adenosine group and it will
attach itself to the adenosine receptor
. This results in
cAMP levels remaining high
inside the cell, thus prolonging the excitatory cells from adrenaline.
Caffeine also inhibits a group of enzymes known as
phosphodiesterases
which break down cAMP. However, relatively high concentrations of caffeine are necessary before this effect becomes important.
Caffeine also causes a constriction of blood vessels which can relieve the pressure of headaches and migraines. Caffeine can also increase the effectiveness of analgesics such as asprin and is often included with them.


Similarities-
• Both contain a tertiary amine group.
• Both contain and five member rings made of carbon and nitrogen atoms.
• Both contain a six member ring made of carbon and nitrogen

Differences-
• Both contain an alkene (C=C) group. Caffeine has one and nicotine has two
• In caffeine the six and five member rings are fused while in nicotine they separated.


Short and Long-Term Effects of Nicotine
• Principle reason: it
elevates mood
- Brain via Blood
- Short feeling of high
• High blood pressure and increase in heart rate
- Nicotine reduces oxygen supply to the heart
- Damages heart and structure of blood vessles;
atherosclerosis

(plaque hardening and narrowing of vessels)
Nicotine Affects on the Bladder
More...
Treatment
one 300mg tablet of aspirin given on arrival to prevent platelets from sticking to blood clots
Thrombolytic medicine
is used to dissolve the blockage
Coronary angioplasty
: balloon to dilate artery (used as last resort)
*
3x the
urge incontinence
Why?
- not really understood; nicotine and other toxins as
irritants
urinary incontinence
: coughing adds extra pressure
smoking is a risk factor for
bladder cancer

(includes incontinence and other overactive bladder symptoms)

Smoking Tobacco Causes...
cancer
of lungs, mouth, and throat (larynx)
heart disease and atherosclerosis
emphysema
and
bronchitis
Not the Baby!
*
1) aveoli in lungs are damaged and lose elasticity in tissue - they keep expanding until burst
2) inflammation of bronchial tubes - caused by lung irritants

smoking lowers oxygen amount
increases baby's heart rate
miscarriage or stillbirth
premature birth or unhealthy light weight
development of respiratory problems
Stimulants

Any substance that increases physiological activity in the body. The opposite of depressants
Medical Uses
Caffeine...
Stimulants are used for a variety of procedures and treatments, including surgery and enhancing your overall alertness
Structure of Caffeine
Increased Caffeine Consumption Can....
A large dose of caffeine is anything over 1000 mg
cause restlessness
insomnia
a rapid pulse rate
palpitations
diarrhea
As a Brief Introduction...

What is Adenosine?
Used to treat ADHD patients
Affects neurological transmitters in the brain which control dopamine and norepinephrine
Are only used for short term treatment
Medical Uses of Adrenaline
Used to treat anaphylactic shock
Treats it by bonding to alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
Receptors target Catecholamines
Adenosine is a

compound consisting of adenine combined with ribose
, one of four nucleoside units in RNA. It plays an important role in biochemical processes such as

energy transfer
.
It is also an
inhibitory neurotransmitter
,
believed to play a role in
promoting sleep

and

suppressing arousal
. Adenosine also plays a role in

regulation of blood flow

to various organs through vasodilation.
Comparison of the Structure of Caffeine and Nicotine:
Short and Long Term Effects of Caffeine
Medical Uses of Amphetamine
Caffeine consists of two fused rings: a pyrimidine and imadazole. There are two methyl groups and a methylium cation.
nicotine
caffeine
How Stimulants Work
More specifically, stimulants work by increasing
dopamine levels
in the brain. Dopamine is a natural chemical released in the brain which causes attentiveness and pleasure.
*
*
*
*
*
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Vann, Madeline. "Can Smoking Cause Embarrassing Bladder Problems?." http://www.everydayhealth.com/. Copyright © 2014 Everyday Health Media, LLC, 22 11 2011. Web. 28 Apr 2014. <http://www.everydayhealth.com/incontinence/can-smoking-cause-embarrassing-bladder-problems.asp&xgt;.
"Caffeine and Your Body." <i>Medicines in My Home</i>. Federal Drug Administration , 1 Jan. 2007. Web. 6 Apr. 2013. &lt;http://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers/buyingusingmedicinesafely/understandingover-the-countermedicines/ucm205286.pdf&gt;.
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"Caffeine Effects." Caffeine Effects. Virtual Mass Spectronomy , n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://svmsl.chem.cmu.edu/vmsl/Caffeine/Caffeine_effects.htm>.
"Nutrition and healthy eating." Caffeine: How much is too much?. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 14 Mar. 2014. Web. 28 Apr. 2014. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/caffeine/art-20045678>.
"Short and Long-Term Effects of Nicotine on Health." http://lapoliticaesotracosa.blogspot.com/. Powered by Blogger.. Web. 28 Apr 2014. <http://lapoliticaesotracosa.blogspot.com/2012/05/short-and-long-term-effects-of-nicotine.html>.
"Coronary thrombosis (heart attack)." http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/. NetDoctor All rights reserved. Copyright © 2013., 12 01 2012. Web. 28 Apr 2014. <http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/coronarythrombosis.htm>.
"What Is a Peptic Ulcer? What Causes Peptic Ulcers?." http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/. © 2004-2014 All rights reserved. MNT, 01 04 2014. Web. 28 Apr 2014. <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/9273.php>.

"IB Chemistry Review." : Option D: Drugs and Medicines (SL). N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. <http://ibchemistry-review.blogspot.com/p/option-d-drugs-and-medicines.html>.
"What Is Emphysema? What Causes Emphysema?." http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/. © 2004-2014 All rights reserved. MNT, 22 09 2014. Web. 28 Apr 2014. <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/8934.php>.
"Smoking During Pregnancy." http://www.webmd.com/. N.p.. Web. 28 Apr 2014. <http:/©2005-2014 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved./www.webmd.com/baby/smoking-during-pregnancy>.
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Differences
Adrenaline is organic
Amphetamines are synthesized
Amphetamine is sympathomimetic
How Stimulants Work
Stimulants alter the level of neurotransmitters in your brain. Depending on the chemical, this usually results in a stimulation of the brain, leading to a sense of alertness.
Introductory
Common Stimulants
Adrenaline (epinephrine)
Amphetamines
Nicotine
Caffeine
Cocaine
Yellow Teeth
- nicotine exposed to oxygen
Full transcript