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Principles of Teaching 1

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Rupert Tamayo

on 14 July 2015

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Transcript of Principles of Teaching 1

What is Teaching?
Unit 1: Teaching: Nature, Characteristics and Principles
Determining and Formulating Goals/Objectives
The Principles of Teaching 1 (TEAC21)
Unit 1: Teaching: Nature, Characteristics and Principles
Unit 3: Management of Instruction
Principles of Teaching 1
Unit 2: Principles of Learning
Unit 3: Management of Instruction
Unit 4: Classroom Management
Unit 5: Effective Instructional Techniques
Rupert Tamayo
Karla Cantiga
An aggregate of organized strategies and activities aimed at inducing learning.
Involves the interplay among such factors as the teacher, the learner, the teaching content and strategies in a diagram called the Triadic Elements of Teaching.
The Content: Teaching Strategies
The choice of content/ subject matter to be taught to achieve desired objectives of the lesson.
The selection of appropriate instructional materials/technology of facilitate learning
The Content:
The Learner
The Teacher
The Teacher
A key factor in any teaching-learning process
Constructs well designed plan to achieve objectives of the lesson
Prepares learning environment
Select appropriate content/strategies/learning activities
Adjust content/activities/strategies/learning environment to learners
The Learner
Most important element of teaching
The natural characteristics of students-age, maturity, grade level, health, abilities, family background, experience and motivation, and his/her culture, including values, attitudes and tradition which influence the teaching-learning process to a very large extent
Chapter 1:
Chapter 2:
Principles Underlying Instruction
Principle of Context
– learning depends largely on the setting particularly including use of material in which the process goes on with this scale of application
Principle of Focus
– instruction must be organized about a focus or direction, as follows:
Page assignment in textbook
Broad concept or a problem to be solved, or a skill to be acquired to carry on understanding
Principle of Socialization-
instruction depends upon the social setting in which it is done, with these scales of application and where social patterns are characterized by:
Principle of Individualization-
instruction must progress in terms of the learner’s own purposes, aptitudes, abilities, and experimental procedures, following these scales of application
Unit 2: Principles of Learning
1.Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the learner.
2. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas.
3. Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience.
4. Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process.
5. Learning is an evolution process.
6. Learning is sometimes a painful process.
7. One of the richest resources for learning is the learner himself.
8. The process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual.
9. The process of problem solving and learning is highly unique and individual.
Chapter 1:
"Begin with the end in mind"
Share lesson objectives with students
3. Lesson objectives must be in the two or three domains; knowledge (cognitive); skill (psychomotor) and values (affective).
4. Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives
5. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims of education as embodied in the Philippine Constitution and other laws
6. Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking.
7. For accountability of learning, lesson objectives must be SMART.
Horne and Pine (1990)
Chapter 2:
Selection and Organization of the Content
The Structure of Subject Matter Content
Our subject matter content includes cognitive, skill and affective components. The cognitive components are concerned with facts, concepts, principles, hypotheses, theories and laws. Skills are concerned with manipulative and thinking skills; the divergent thinking, convergent and problem solving
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Use of Teaching Strategies
Learning is an active process.
The more senses that are involved in learning, the more and the better the learning.
A non-threatening atmosphere enhances learning.
Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning.
Learning is meaningful when it is connected to students’ everyday life.
Good teaching goes beyond recall of information.
An integrated teaching approach is far more effective than teaching isolated bits of information.
Chapter 3:
Difference Among the terms of Technique, Strategy, Method, and Approach
• The personal art and style of the teacher in carrying out the procedures of teaching
• The teacher’s unique way, style or act executing the stages of a teaching method
• a set of decisions on what learning activities to provide achieve an objective
• an overall or general design of how the lesson will be executed or delivered
• can be a substitute to methodology
• a series of related and progressive acts performed by a teacher and purpose to achieve the desired objectives of the lesson
• the established way or procedure of guiding the mental processes in mastering subject matter.
• A well-planned step-by-step procedure that is directed towards desired learning outcomes
Direct Approach
Indirect Approach
Aimed at mastery of knowledge and skills
learner is passive, receives ready information for the teacher
aimed at generating knowledge for experience
learner is active in search of information
Deductive Method
Demonstration Method
Lecture Method
Concept Development Method
Discovery Method
Inductive Method
Problem-solving Method
Project Method
Other Teaching Strategies
Constructivist Teaching
Cooperative learning
Distance Learning
Metacognitive Teaching
Peer tutoring

Reflective Teaching
Problem-based Learning
Role Playing
Chapter 4:
Selection and Use of IM's
1. All instructional materials are aids to instruction. They do not replace the teacher.
2. Choose the instructional material that best suits your instructional objectives.
3. If, possible use a variety of tools
4. Check out your instructional material before class starts to be sure it is working properly

5. For results abide by the general utilization guide on the use of media given below:
Learn how to use the instructional material
Prepare introductory remarks, questions or initial comments you may need
Provide conducive environment
Explain the objectives of the lesson
Stress what is to be watched or listened to carefully
State what they will expected to do with a information they will learn
There is a need to summarize or review the experience.
Chapter 5:
Assessment of Learning
Assessment in the Different Phases of Instruction:

Diagnostic Assessment
Formative Assessment
Summative Assessment

Unit 4: Classroom Management
Chapter 1:
Principles in Classroom Management
Involves such aspects as:
Organization, teacher’s behavior, and classroom organizational patterns (eg. How teacher structures classroom activities) and discipline.
Includes classroom climate, which has to do with the emotional tone and quantity of human relationships in the classroom.
Helps both students and teacher as it-
Enhances mental and social development of learners in a room that is confidence building and where children grow in their competence as human beings
Facilitate the achievement of instructional goals/objectives, which, however, requires the development of a systematic way of organizing classroom activities

Chapter 2:
Management of Time
Includes such aspects as:
-smooth and efficient movement from one aspect of lesson to another so that “slack time” and classroom –control problems are reduced.
Beginning-of-a class activities
- include role-taking, materials development, announcement-making, and other administrative and non-teaching procedures done before instructional activities start.
- the lesson the rate at which a teacher helps learners to move through the lesson, which needs to be break enough to provide a sense of productive movement but not so quick that the students cannot cope.
Providing assistance
- involves developing procedures for responding to pupils who need but not to a point where other pupils become frustrated and are tempted to misbehave too because the teacher’s attention may have been concentrated on only one student.
Chapter 3:
The Physical Environment
Managing the Physical Environment
A well-designed utilization of classroom space is of utmost necessity if the aim is to be able to manage all learning activities to a successful completion.
Furniture Arrangement
The physical features in the classroom must be located in areas where the contents could be viewed well and be made available for use.
Seating Arrangement
The seating arrangement deserves foremost consideration since the students stay in each at the most longest time during the day.
Chapter 4:
Instructional Management
Movement management-
maintaining the momentum and making transitions between lesson topics smooth
Group focus
-maintaining group alertness and concerted effort
Avoidance of satiation impediments
-to maximize learning by providing challenging and varying activities
Unit 5: Effective Instructional Techniques
Chapter 1:
Intrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic Motivation
Chapter 2:
Questioning and Reacting Techniques
For Assessing Cognition
For Verification
For Creative Thinking
For Evaluating
For Productive Thinking
For Motivating
For Instructing
according to purpose:
according to level:
Low Level Questions
High Level Questions
Convergent Questions
Divergent Questions
Full transcript