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Journey Through The Rock Cycle

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by

Maggie McCorkle

on 21 November 2014

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Transcript of Journey Through The Rock Cycle

Journey Through The Rock Cycle
ROCKS!
A rock is a naturally formed solid that is usually made up of one or more types of minerals
A mineral is a naturally formed solid that has a definite chemical makeup and crystal structure
Earth is built almost entirely of rock
This allows humans to use rock for multiple purposes:
Building houses and skyscrapers
Sources of metals (iron, aluminum, copper, etc.)
Carving of structures and other works of art
As a base for pavement roads and highways
The Rock Cycle!
The rock cycle is the set of natural processes that form, change, break down, and re-form rocks
A cycle is made up of repeating events that happen one after another
THIS DOES NOT MEAN that rocks move through the rock cycle in a particular order
Like all cycles, the rock cycle has no beginning or ending but goes on continually
There are three rock types that are classified by how they form as they move through the rock cycle
Igneous Rocks!
Sedimentary Rocks!
Commonly form when layers of sediment is compressed and cemented together over time, but they can form other ways too
Sediments are particles of rock that settle out of water or air
Transportation:
Wind, water, or dissolving of minerals
Example: Washing mud or sand off of your hands
Formation:
Compression or evaporation
Example: Steam rollers pressing cement down for roads or heating up salt water
Metamorphic Rocks!
Form when tremendous amounts of heat and pressure are acting on a rock
This process is called metamorphism
When both high heat and high pressure are present, metamorphic changes can occur over very large areas and when only one of these conditions are present, changes tend to occur over small areas
Large areas where metamorphism occurs: mountain ranges
Small areas where metamorphism occurs: area surrounding magma chambers (Contact)
Intrusive: Igneous rocks that form when magma cools within the Earth’s crust (i.e. granite)
Large crystals
Rock formation: Ship Rock
Extrusive: Igneous rocks that form when lava cools outside of the Earth’s crust on its surface (i.e. cinders)
Small crystals
Rock formation: Lava flows
Most common type of rock at the Earth's surface
The grain size of the sedimentary rock can tell us about the environment it was deposited in
Small grain size (sand, clay) – calm water
Large grain size (boulders, pebbles) – raging river or tidal zone
Coal: Unusual because it is formed from remains of plants rather than earlier rocks
Happens in swampy areas
The coal that we use today as a fossil fuel began forming millions of years ago
Limestone: Unusual because it is formed from carbonate minerals (shells and skeletons of ocean organisms)
Coral Reefs
Other common examples of sedimentary rocks: sandstone and conglomerate
Conglomerate
Sandstone
Most metamorphic rocks will develop bands of minerals this is called foliation. This is an arrangement of minerals in flat or wavy parallel bands
The original sedimentary or igneous rock that is turned into a metamorphic rock is called the “parent rock”
Examples: Limestone is the parent rock of marble and phyllite is the parent rock of schist
This rock forms when molten rock cools and becomes solid
Molten rock within the Earth is called magma
Molten rock that reaches the Earth’s surface is called lava
Igneous rock is classified on the origin of its mineral composition (silica makeup) and size
There are two types of igneous rocks:
Weathering and Erosion
There is a distinct difference between the terms “weathering” and “erosion”
Weathering is the process by which natural processes break down rocks into smaller pieces
Erosion is the process in which sediment is picked up and moved from one place to another
These are the processes responsible for breaking down rock, transporting it, and depositing it where new sedimentary rocks form
Weathering and erosion are the main forces responsible for forming the Grand Canyon
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