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The Progression of Medicine in the 1900s

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Madison S.

on 9 April 2015

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Transcript of The Progression of Medicine in the 1900s

The Progression of Medicine in the 1900s
Polio
Polio was a very deadly disease in the 1900s (Jonas Salk 1). Polio was very common disease amongst children (Jonas Salk 1). "Children by the thousands became infected with the crippling disease poliomyelitis, or polio, during the summer months" (Jonas Salk 1). Polio was a disease that could leave people paralyzed or take away the use of their lungs (Polio:On the edge). The polio vaccine was declared safe on April 12, 1955. When Salk was doing more research on the polio vaccine some nurses wanted to give some children a noneffective vaccine, but Salk did not want to because he felt bad that those injected with the noneffective version would get polio and he would not be doing anything to help them (McPherson 69).
A new antibiotic: Penicillin
Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928 (Medicine Timeline: 1920). This discovery was an accidental discovery, from a culture that dissolved where it came in contact with a mold (Otfinoski 3). Penicillin was an antibiotic that can treat bacterial infections (Penicillin V Potassium Oral 1). Before penicillin, the antibiotics were very limited in options. Penicillin was a major breakthrough in antibiotics. Before penicillin there was no effective treatment for bacterial diseases. While penicillin is a very good antibiotic, some people are allergic to penicillin. Ernst Chain and Howard Florey also continued Fleming's work on Penicillin.
People can live with diabetes
Insulin is a liquid that diabetics can take to help them control their blood sugar levels. Insulin is naturally produced by the body. The insulin extract added the insulin that the body could not create on its own. Before insulin, if you got diabetes you would most likely die from your condition. It was known that diabetic people died because of damage to the pancreas (The Discovery of Insulin).
This won't hurt, Me...
Jonas Salk was the person who developed the first effective polio vaccine. He developed the vaccine in 1955 (Jonas Salk 1). He was very good at school and skipped many grades. He went to high school at the age of 12 and college at age 16. Jonas Salk was the head of the virus research lab at the Pittsburgh University after he attended medical school at New York University (Balik 1).
Work Cited
Jonas Salk
Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming was born on August 6, 1881. Alexander Fleming discovered the antibiotic penicillin. He found penicillin in his lab at St. Mary's hospital in London (Alexander Fleming 1). He also won the Nobel Prize for his work with penicillin in 1945 which he shared with Florey and Chain [Howard Florey (1898-1968) and Ernst Chain (1906-79) 1].
"About Novocaine." MTV.com. 2015. http://www.mtv.com/artists/novocaine/biography/. Accessed 3/1/15. Web.

"Alexander Fleming." pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bmfleming.html. Accessed 2/7/15.Web.

"Alexander Fleming.” http://www.biography.com/people/alexander-fleming-9296894. Accessed 3/1/15. Web.

"Antibiotics"http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/A-An/Antibiotics.html. Accessed 1/15/15. Web.

“Discovery and Development of Penicillin”. American Chemical Society International Historic Chemical Landmarks. http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/land marks/flemingpenicillin.html . Accessed 11January 2015. Web.

Dunsky, J.L. "Alfred Einhorn." http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Alfred+Einhorn. Accessed 2/27/15. Web.

"Howard Florey (1898-1968) and Ernst Chain (1906-79)".
www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/people/ howardfloreyernstchain.aspx. Accessed 2/12/15. Web.

"Jonas Salk" http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/sal0bio-1.
Accessed 1/15/15. Web.

"Jonas Salk." http://www.biography.com/people/jonas-
salk-9470147.2015. Web. Accessed 04 Mar. 2015.

McPherson, Stephanie S. Jonas Salk: Conquering Polio. Lerner
Publications Company, 2002. Print.

Monath, T.P., Vasconcelos, P.F. “Yellow Fever.” Journal of Clinical
Virology 64:160-173. 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25453327. Accessed 12/16/14. Web.
Banting and Best
Banting and Best are the people who developed the insulin extract. They used dogs to help them figure out what to extract (The Discovery of Insulin). They had to test the extract and experiment on dogs and cows before they could begin to make it available to people.
Novocaine
Novocaine was developed in 1905. Novocaine is a painkiller to substitute for cocaine. While novocaine is not the only substitute for cocaine, it is a common substitute for the pain killer cocaine (Novocaine). It was necessary for there to be a substitute for cocaine since cocaine is a very addictive substance and the patients using the substance as a painkiller would still use it even after they truly needed it. Novocaine is mainly used as a painkiller for intramuscular penicillin injections and dentistry (Novocaine 1).
Novocaine was developed by Alfred Einhorn (Novocaine 1). Einhorn is a German chemist (Novocaine 1). Alfred Einhorn wanted novocaine to be used for amputations, but not many doctors wanted to use it for that purpose (Novocaine 1). Einhorn was displeased when dentist found it useful and he tried to discourage them from using it because he considered dentists inferior to physicians (Novocaine 1).
Alfred Einhorn
Work Cited #2
Nordqvist, Christian."What are antibiotics? How do antibiotics
work?" http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php. Accessed 14 Nov. 2014.

"Novocaine.” http://www.mtv.com/artists/novocaine/biography/.
Accessed 3/1/15. Web.

"On the Edge Polio." http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/ontheedge/polio/
index.html. Accessed 2/17/15. Web.

“On This Day:Polio Vaccine Declared Safe April 12, 1955.” http://
www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/April/Polio-Vaccination-Introduced-to-Public.html. Accessed 2/26/15. Web.

Otfinoski, Steven. Alexander Fleming: Conquering disease with
Penicillin. Facts on File, 1992. Print.

"People and Discoveries." http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/
entries/bmchai.html. Accessed 11/5/14. Web.

“Salk and Polio.” http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/
a685015.html. Penicillin. Accessed 2/13/15. Web.

"Steroids". http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/Ra-Thy/
Steroids.html. Accessed 1/7/15. Web.

"Steroids." http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/Ra-Thy/
Steroids.html. Accessed 2/27/15. Web

"The Discovery of Insulin." http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/
medicine/insulin/discovery-insulin.html. Accessed 2/23/15. Web.

"Timeline." http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/timeline/
#1920. Accessed 10/12/14. Web.

This is Banting and Best with a dog they used to work on insulin.
Steroids
The most common thought about what steroids do is to build up body mass. While this is one use of them, they do many other things, including regulating inflammation and blood cholesterol levels (Steroids 1). Steroids make up an organic compound group of chemical substances that include sterols, D vitamins, and some hormones (Steroid 1). One steroid that must be used with care is a steroid made from plant roots called saponins (Steroids 1). This steroid can kill red blood cells and it is used to stimulate the heart; if this steroid is overused it can become fatal (Steroids 1).
Yellow Fever Vaccine
The first yellow fever vaccine was developed in 1935 (Medical Advances Timeline 1). Yellow fever is a mosquito-born disease that is common in tropical areas (Yellow Fever 1). The disease gets its name from people turning yellow due to liver damage.
Antibiotics
Antibiotics are a medicine used to treat bacterial diseases. Antibiotics function by destroying or slowing down bacteria growth (Nordqvist 1).During World War II antibiotics were called "wonder drugs" because they cured disease very quickly (Antibiotics 1). Antibiotics can not cure viral diseases and if taken when not needed, they can make the body resistant to antibiotics. A common antibiotic is penicillin (Antibiotics 1). Antibiotics can also be taken orally or given as inoculations (Antibiotics 1).
Florey and Chain
Ernst Chain and Howard Florey worked together on antibiotics and enzymes (People and Discoveries 1). Florey and Chain worked on Fleming's penicillin and produced a usable form of penicillin in 1940 based on Fleming's original paper on penicillin (Medicine Timeline 1).
This is the chemical structure for Novocaine.
The chemical structure for steroids.
By Madison Smith
This is the chemical structure for penicillin.
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