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Evolution of the Angler Fish

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Savannah Ostermeyer

on 27 March 2014

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Transcript of Evolution of the Angler Fish

Evolution of the Angler Fish
The Angler Fish
The angler fish evolved in both male and female. The most rapid diversity happened in the deep-sea angler fish, rather than in the surface angler fish.
Also known as Lophiiformes, the Angler fish is considered the most ugliest fish on the planet.
Benthic
The Benthic Angler fish lives in the Bethnic Zone of the Ocean, which is the lowest level. They have many distinctive features. Also the stomach can expand to twice its original size therefore, it can consume prey up to twice its size. The jaw and stomach have adapted to the environment to benefit the survival of the Benthic angler fish.
Pelagic
The pelagic angler fish lives closer to the surface of the ocean. They are more laterally (sideways) formed than benthnic fish.
There are two types of Angler fish: Benthic and Pelagic
Male Angler Fish
Female Angler Fish
Is
The male Angler fish is much, much smaller than the female; up to one-tenth smaller. The males, also, don't have a dorsal spine. They have evolved into a permanent parasite because of the difficulty of finding a mate. (National Geographic)
The Mating Process
Female releases a chemical scent that the males detect and follow
The two then become fused together
Once the male finds the female, its hooked-shaped teeth plunge into the females body
The Angler fish is a form of divergent evolution.
Divergent Evolution
Def.- accumulations of differences between groups that can lead to the formation of a new species, usually a result of diffusion of the same species to different and isolate environments
Ex.- A human's foot and a monkey's foot
How is Divergent Evolution Linked to the evolution of the Angler Fish?
They are linked because of the over 300 extremely varried species of anglerfishes. This means that there was a group of angler fish that seperated, some went to the benthic zone, while others stayed in shallow waters. They both differently adapted to their different environments to survive.
The females are the really ugly ones. They are the only angler fish that have a dorsal spine (fishing pole). The fishing pole is used to lure and bring prey close enough to catch. In mating, a female can carry up to SIX males. (National Geographic)
After Mating
There they hatch and feed off of plankton
Spawn a thin sheet of jello-like material that's 10 meters long and 25 cm wide
The eggs are all in a single layer on the sheet
The spawn is free to float in the sea (floats more to the surface)
What Drove Angler Fish to Evolve?
Their environment!
Male Evolution
Female Evolution
Have evolved into a parasitic form to ensure survival
Males detect and find females by using their enlarged nostrils
Would starve and die without a female host
Females have evolved in these ways: bioluminescence, extensive body, and unique reproductive modes
Bioluminescence
Is a biochemical emission (giving off) of light
The main components are luciferin and an enzyme luciferase
Usually results from a chemical reaction that gives off efficient energy
In angler fish, this reaction is located on the tip of the dorsal fin 'fishing pole'. This allows the fish to lure and catch prey when it is close enough to grab.
The Extensive Body
When an angler fish is luring in and catching its prey, its body can expand up to twice its original size. This means that the angler fish can devour prey twice the size of itself!
This evolvement has helped the angler fish survive by allowing it to take in twice the energy it really needs. This is beneficial because of the rarity of food in the deep, deep ocean
The Unique Reproductive Modes
The reproductive ways of angler fish are very interesting (this was explained in an earlier slide). This way of reproduction helps both male and female angler fish survive by: a) giving the female a unlimited amount of sperm, b) not causing the males to die before reaching the females
Example of Divergent Evolution
A flock of birds are flying and half of them land on an island while the other half go on further. The birds on the island then adapt differently to survive in their environment than the birds who flew further. This can cause new species to be formed
(Journal Article)
(Sea and Sky: The Sea
Another Example
(Life of Sea)
All this was found by scientists that used four different methods.
The Four Methods
In the scholarly article, scientists wrote the steps that it took them to figure the evolutionary history of the angler fish. They used the methods of taxon sampling, DNA extraction, PCR, and sequencing, sequency editing and alignment, and phylogenetic analysis.
Taxon Sampling
DNA Extraction, PCR, and Sequencing
Sequencing Editing and Alignment
Phylogenetic Analysis
How does this Evidence prove Evolution?
Is the sampling form a group of one or more populations of organism(s)
Divergent evolution proves the evolution of the angler fish because divergent evolution results in a diffusion of the same species to a different environment. This proves that the anlgerfish were split in to two different groups. The different adaptations the two groups made to their environment also prove that they had diverged in to two groups
This sampling allowed the scientists to cover a higher-level of relations with the Lophiiformes
In the journal, scientists sampled from five suborders of angler fish, 17 of the 18 families, and 39 out of the 321 species
DNA extraction is the total extraction of DNA from a tissue
They then purified the short strands of DNA and then analyzed
After extraction of DNA, the scientists amplifies the mitogenomes of the 33 lophiiformes species using the PCR technique
Is the alignment of common DNA (or DNA strands) between related organisms
More Evidence that the Angler Fish Diverged from two Groups
In DNA extraction of the Benthic and Pelagic angler fish it showed that there were multiple similarities of the DNA
The antanomy of the Pelagic and Benthic angler fish also have similarities too
They found that there were 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes that were aligned
After the sequences were analyzed, the scientists compared the DNA sequences to closely related species
Sources
Phylogenetic analysis is a process that relates the sequences to the past history of the angler fish
After receiving the results from the alignment, the scientists then compared the strands using the above term
All these methods were used to form a conclusion on the evolution of the angler fish
Conclusion
These methods showed phylogenetic relationships between the lophiiform subordners and ceratioid families. The visual distinction of the female characteristics and male evolution enabled the deep-sea anglerfish to diversify quicker than shallow-water angler fish.
Miya, Masaki. "Methods." Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): a mitogenomic perspective. Issue 2010: 6-12. Print.
“Anglerfish: Lophius piscatorius.” National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 2014. Web. N.d.
“Deep Sea Anglerfish.” The Sea. Sea and Sky, 2013. Web. N.d.
“Anglerfish Casting Doubt on Evolution.” Creation Revolution. Creation Revolution, 2013. Web. 26 April 2011.
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