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Copy of Collectivism vs. Individualism

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Axel Kent

on 9 June 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Collectivism vs. Individualism

Background
Individualism is the belief that each person's priorities (or needs) are more important than the priorities of a society or group ("individualism", 2014). Collectivism, on the other hand, is the belief that a society's or group's needs is more important than those of an individual ("collectivism", 2014). These are two opposing ideologies of how to live one's life. Western cultures tend to be more individualistic while Eastern cultures tend to be more collectivist (Zaharna, 2013).
Preconceptions

Research Methods
Applications
Current Knowledge
Knowledge of collectivism and individualism can be used to:

-eliminate stereotypes("PART I — Essential Tool Overview", n.d.).

-to change policies (any kind) that assume all Americans have individualistic values ("PART III — Continuum of “Individualistic” and “Collectivistic” Values", n.d.).

-motivate workers (for employers) (Gorodnichenko & Roland, n.d.).
References

Very little experiments can be done with this subject because the results will vary greatly due to national context (what country the experiment is done in).
-most research is done through surveys, in which participants can lie or over exaggerate.
There were many articles encouraging individualism and denouncing collectivism. There was some slight difficulty finding unbiased work.
Collectivist vs. Individualist Cultures: Impact on Positive Sense of Self
collectivism. (2014). In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved May 31,
2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/
collectivism

Dimensions of rational cultures. (n.d.). Retrieved from Geert
Hofstede. http://www.geerthofstede.nl/dimensions-of-national-
cultures
Gorodnichenko, Y., Gerard, R. (n.d.) Understanding the
individualism-collectivism cleavage and its effects: lessons from
cultural psychology [PDF file]. Retrieved from http://
eml.berkeley.edu/~groland/pubs/IEA%20papervf.pdf

Hofstede: individualism/ collectivism. (n.d.). Retrieved from Andrews
University.. http://www.andrews.edu/~tidwell/bsad560/
HofstedeIndividualism.html

Hui, C. H. Measurement of individualism-collectivism. (n.d.). Abstract
retrieved from Science Direct database.http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0092656688900220

individualism. (2014). In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved May 31,
2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/
individualism

National cultural dimensions. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Hofstede
Center. http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html

Part I - essential tool overview. (n.d.). Retrieved from NCSET. http://
www.ncset.org/publications/essentialtools/diversity/partI.asp

Part III - continuum of “individualistic” and “collectivistic” values.
(n.d.).Retrieved from NCSET. http://www.ncset.org/publications/
essentialtools/diversity/partIII.asp

Tafarodi R. W., & Walters, P. (1999). Individualism-collectivism, life
events, and self-esteem: a test of two trade-offs [PDF file].
Retrieved from http://www.psych.utoronto.ca/users/tafarodi/
Papers/EJSP99.pdf

Zaharna, R. S. (2013). Culture posts: individualism, collectivism- and
relationalism. USC Annenberg. Retrieved from http://
uscpublicdiplomacy.org/blog/culture-posts-individualism-
collectivism-%E2%80%93-and-relationalism


Coming from a collectivist family and living in an individualistic country, I felt conflicted, confused, and isolated most of my life. The ideology I adopted from my family opposed the lessons about independence in school and from my friends. Society taught me to work for myself but deep down, I wanted to work for my mother, my sister, and my brother. I wanted to put my family first, not myself. It wasn't until recently this year that I found a word for what I believed in: Collectivism. As my friends can tell you, I wouldn't stop using it this year. I thought "Finally! I'm not dysfunctional; I'm not unable to think for myself. I just believe in a different ideology and way of life."
My background leads to my preconceptions on this project. One preconception I had was that an individualist would be able to adapt to a collectivist culture but that a collectivist would not be able to adapt to an individualistic society. Another preconception I had was that individualists would depend on others less while collectivists would depend on people more.

Limitations
Relevance/ Significance
Out of all the research methods, surveys would be the most effective.
-Geert Hofstede conducted and compared scores from surveys across 70 different countries regarding how workplace values are influenced by culture ("National cultural dimensions", n.d.).
-Scores from surveys are usually measured on a Individualism-Collectivism (INDCOL) Scale (Hui, n.d.).
German vs. Chinese cultural pictures (http://acrossculturesweb.com/)
Expected role of the individual
Role of Elders/Senior Citizens
Expression of emotions
Expression of feelings
-Individualists view themselves as independent, while collectivists view themselves as interdependent ("PART III — Continuum of “Individualistic” and “Collectivistic” Values", n.d.).

-Individualist identities are based off of their own personal experiences while collectivist identities are based off of their role in a group ("PART III — Continuum of “Individualistic” and “Collectivistic” Values", n.d.).

-Individualists have a consistent perceived self while collectivists change their perceived self based on social context (Gorodnichenko & Roland, n.d.).

-Individualists see themselves as stable and the world as malleable, while collectivists see themselves as malleable and the world as stable (Gorodnichenko & Roland, n.d.).

In experiments
.... (self esteem can be divided into self-competence and self liking)
-In response to self-achievement events (ex. a karate tournament), individualists tend to have more self-competence (Tafarodi & Walters, 1999).
-Collectivists are required to surrender personal control to achieve group goals (Tafarodi & Walters, 1999).
-In response to social events (ex. parties), collectivists tend to have more self-liking (Tafarodi & Walters, 1999).
-Individualists put self-expression over the wishes and expectations of others (Tafarodi & Walters, 1999).




-Understanding this topic will help people accept other cultures and keep an open mind.

-Many cross-cultural social psychologists like Hofstede and Triandis have studied the collectivism-individualism spectrum to gain a better understanding of foreign cultures.

-Knowledge of this subject can be used to look at world problems through a different lens (not just through an individualistic lens).


Conclusion
-Collectivism promotes more group cooperation while individualism promotes more self-reliance.

-Individualists can be encouraged through personal achievements while collectivists can be encouraged through group achievements.
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