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REVISION (Under constant construction)

I use this for revision in case you had not guessed.
by

George Gadd-Hayward

on 11 May 2016

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Transcript of REVISION (Under constant construction)

REVISION - GCSE
Business communication
systems

Stakeholders
Stakeholders are people that have a say in what a business does and include people such as, people who have a share in the company, local residents of the company, the employees of the company,
Equipment used in business
Internal Stakeholders
photo copier
laser printer
keyboard
mouse
digital camera
external hard drive
Internal stakeholders are people that are involved with the business by being a part of it, so it would be an employee or manager.
Motivation in the workplace
External Stakeholders
External stakeholders are people that are interested in a business but not a part of it, so this would be consumers and
Enzymes
Enzyme Protease: used to pre-digest proteins during the manufacture of baby foods.

Enzyme lipase: used - together with protease - in biological detergents to break down - digest - the substances in stains into smaller, water soluble substances.

Enzyme carbohydrate: used to convert starch syrup, which is relatively cheap, into sugar syrup, which is more valuable - for example, as an ingredient in sports drinks.

Enzyme isomerase: used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup - fructose is sweeter than glucose, so it can be used in smaller amounts in slimming foods.
There are two types of motivation in the workplace, financial and non-financial.

A digital camera would be used to take pictures.
Can upload to a computer from where it can be printed on viewed/monitored.

Digital camera

An external hard drive would be used to store info for a later date where it won’t be forgotten by staff.
Controlled by computer it would keep track of all purchases done by the store in the past.

External hard drive

A scanner would be used to scan and print something using the laser printer
by uploading it to the computer and then sending it to the printer and in doing so copy the thing that was priory scanned.

Scanner

Advantages
It gets the job done
Faster and more efficient than writing.
Disadvantages
No alternative
Nothing lasts for ever.

Advantages and disadvantages
of using a laser printer.

Tesco would use a mouse in combination with a keyboard to maximise efficiency and make the job easier to do.
They would use this to control other pieces of equipment eg. Printer, scanner, external hard drive.

Mouse

Tesco uses keyboards to input data into a computer, in combination with a mouse this is a fast process.
They use it to calculate prices and control other pieces of equipment eg. Printer, external hard drive.

Keyboard

Advantages
Can be used to show new employees what to do.
Can be used for advertisement purposes.
Disadvantages
A cheap one will take fairly low resolution pictures.
Nothing lasts for ever.

Advantages and disadvantages
of using a digital camera

Advantages
Safe in case of computer damage.
Can store many Terabytes of data if large enough.
Disadvantages
Will need to be emptied when full.
Nothing lasts for ever.

Advantages and disadvantages of
using an external hard drive

Advantages
Quick and easy way of copying something.
Can be upload to a computer.
Disadvantages
May be expensive.
Nothing lasts for ever.

Advantages and disadvantages
of using a scanner

This would be used to print out receipts and is more efficient than simply writing it out.
Controlled by computer and can print black, white and coloured images. Could also print other things like posters.

Laser Printer

Advantages
Precise and efficient.
Easy to use.
Disadvantages
May take some getting used to.
Nothing lasts for ever.

Advantages and disadvantages
of using a mouse

Advantages
Fast and easy to use.
Works well in combination with a mouse.
Disadvantages
Can be overwhelming if never used before.
Nothing lasts for ever.

Advantages and disadvantages
of using a keyboard.

Discrimination in the workplace
Leagal controls on recruitment


Thank you for listening

The End

Legal Controls on recruitment
GCSE BCS

This act requires that all federal agencies, include in their contracts, that nobody will be discriminated against because of their:
Race
Colour
Creed
Nationality

Fair employment and treatment act

The race relations act is the act that prevents the mistreatment of people included in this act.
Items that are covered include:
Nationality
Colour
Race
Ethnic origin
National origin

Race Relations act

The disability discrimination act stops the discrimination of people with disabilities in the workplace and in everyday life.
The law states that:
People with disabilities may not be treated differently in the workplace.
Public places must be accessible to people who are disabled.

Disability discrimination act

Sex discrimination act is the act that stops the different treatment of genders in the workplace. It protects:
Against people who would chose to employ someone just because of their gender.
The law states that:
No man should treat a women differently and the same goes for a woman treating a man differently because of their gender.

Sex discrimination act

Discrimination is Being treated differently because of your:
Ethnic background.
Skin colour
Belonging to a group
Gender

What is discrimination

Equal play was put into place to stop people paying less because of their:
Gender
Race
Age
Skin colour

Equal pay

Financial
Non-Financial
Financial motivation is the easiest form of motivation but also obviously the most expensive as it will cost money.
Here are some examples of financial motivation
Biology
Physics
Physics equations
Momentum (P)= mass X velocity
Kinetic energy (Ke)= 1/2 X Mass X Velocity²
Average Velocity (V) = Displacement / Time
Gravitational potential (GP) = Mass (KG) X gravity
(earth= 10) X height (M)
Force (F) = Mass X Acceleration
Momentum before = Momentum after
L.L.W.
Radiation
Alpha- alpha radiation is very damaging however does not travel very far and can be stopped by pretty much anything, it can be stopped by a piece of paper.
Periodic table
Beta- beta radiation is in between gamma and alpha radiation as it does not do as much damage as alpha, however it is not stopped so easily, a sheet aluminium can stop it.
H-Hydrogen
He-Helium
Li-Lithium
Be-Beryllium
B-Boron
C-Carbon
N-Nitrogen
O-Oxygen
F-Florine
Ne-Neon
Na -Sodium
Mg-Magnesium
Al-Aluminium
Si- Silicon
S-Sulfur
P-Phosphorous
Cl-Chlorine
Ar-Argon
K-Potassium
Ca-Calcium
Gamma- gamma radiation does not do as much damage as either alpha or beta radiation however is the hardest to stop as it takes thick concrete walls to stop it.
First 20 elements
Mendeleev periodic table
Background radiation
Random science
The term relative means something in comparison to something else. For example, you are presently traveling 107,300 KM/H around the sun, however relative to the earth you are not moving.
Another good example of relativity is if you were standing on a train traveling at 1000MPH (not recommended) and you fired a powerful gun backwards that ordinarily would have the force to push a bullet at speeds of 1000MPH (assuming there are not many other forces such as air resistance taking effect) then the bullet you fired backward off the train, relative to the earth the bullet would be traveling at 0MPH (more or less due to other factors).
Alternatively if yo fired the same gun foreword then the bullet would be traveling at 2000MPH. And firing the gun off the sides of the train would cause the bullet to travel 1000 MPH in the direction you fired, but also 1000 MPH in the direction the train is moving.
Background radiation is the natural radiation that is all around us, partly due to the suns rays hitting the Earth.
Other sources of background radiation include granite in the soil and large masses below the soil, small amounts of gaseous radon in the air.
Things to do in free time
Do controlled assessments
This prezi
think of something else to put on this list.
Finnish C.V.
Continue revision questions.
For a better and more in detailed periodic table click this link
--> http://www.ptable.com/
Ionic bonding
Half-Life
Health and safety
Follow this arrow to go and see a video I made about health and safety in the workplace.
Video on health and safety
Health and safety in the workplace is very important to a business as it can cause serious problems if it is ignored.
E-Commerce
I.C.T. components
Enzymes
Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are optimum temperatures and pH values at which their activity is greatest. Enzymes are also proteins, and usually denatured above about 45ºC.
Enzymes are important in respiration. Aerobic respiration releases energy from glucose.
What are enzymes?

Enzymes are biological catalysts - catalysts are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without being used up. Enzymes are also proteins that are folded into complex shapes that allow smaller molecules to fit into them. The place where these substrate molecules fit is called the active site.
A half-life is the time it takes for a radioactive material to lose half of it's radioactivity.
Inertia
Inertia is an objects resistance to opposing forces attempting to change it's present direction or velocity, this can often largely depend on momentum and mass.
If the shape of the enzyme changes, its active site may no longer work. We say the enzyme has been denatured. They can be denatured by high temperatures or extremes of pH. Note that it is wrong to say the enzyme has been killed. Although enzymes are made by living things, they are proteins, and not alive.
Temperature and enzymes
As the temperature increases, so does the rate of reaction. But very high temperatures denature enzymes.
The graph shows the typical change in an enzyme's activity with increasing temperature. The enzyme activity gradually increases with temperature until around 37ºC, or body temperature. Then, as the temperature continues to rise, the rate of reaction falls rapidly, as heat energy denatures the enzyme.
Atomic Bonding
When different atoms join together they bond.
Just like there is different types of glue, there are different types of bonding between atoms.
All the inormation on Ionic Bonding is on the right.
Ionic Bonding means that the bonding happens between ions.
Ions are just a specific way of saying that an atom has more or fewer electrons than a normal atom of that element.
This is the equation for aerobic respiration:
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)
How to get an atom to ion
A normal atom is not positive or negative. This is because the number of protons (+ve) = the number of electrons (-ve).
To find out the number of electrons a normal atom should have just look t its atomic number. An "normal" atom will have this many electrons.
The electron shells of a normal atom fill up like this...
1st shell = max of 2 electrons
2nd shell = max of 8 electrons
3rd shell = max of 8 electrons
A FULL OUTER SHELL IS THE MOST STABLE.
enzyme reaction catalysed
amylase starch → sugars
protease proteins → amino acids
lipase lipids → fatty acids + glycerol

Amylase is an example of a carbohydrate. Lipids are fats and oils.
Follow this arrow to see a video I made of motivation in the workplace.
Follow this arrow to see a video I made of motivation in the workplace.
Raising the pay of employees will improve motivation to work harder.
Having the opportunity to work overtime may motivate the employees by giving them a chance to earn more money for more work.
Non-financial motivation is the type of motivation that is harder to achieve but is also cheaper than financial motivation as it does not involve directly spending money to motivate the employees.
Here are some examples of non-financial motivation.
Having company cars and other such equipment to be lent to the employees would improve motivation.
Having company events/activities occasionally to keep the employees active and to give them something to do if they do not already.
financial motivation
non-financial motivation
In the workplace motivation is important as without motivation the employees in the workplace might not do their jobs with optimum efficiency as they may feel that it is not worth it.
Discrimination is when someone is treated differently because of their race, creed, nationality or religion.

Discrimination is illegal in the workplace by the fair employment and treatment act, and doing so would land the person in a lot of trouble.
power point on fair employment and treatment act
Data protection act
The data protection act is an act which helps to protect your personal data from being taken and used in a manner in which you would be against.
For more info on the data protection act you can go to this link for more info -> http://www.teach-ict.com/gcse_new/legal/dpa/miniweb/index.htm
Terms relevant to the data protection act
Data subject
Data subject
Data controller
Informational commissioner
Informational commissioner
Data controller
data processor/data user
Personal data
Personal data
data processor/data user
E-commerce is the buying/selling of goods electronically (over the internet).
Some examples of this are companies such as amazon and ebay.

There are many advantages and disadvantages of E-commerce for a business as shown by the table on the left of this bubble (follow the left arrow).
Advantages and disadvantages of E-commerce for a business
Advantages and disadvantages of E-commerce for a consumer
Follow the arrow on the left to see advantages and disadvantages for the consumer.
Advantages
Disadvantages
Wider range of consumers from all around the world through the internet.
Open 24/7 as the website never needs to go down.
Having the server running to keep the website up day and night ould be very power consuming.
The business would need to stock up on supplies more often and need a warehouse to store the items in.
Recruitment process
The recruitment process as guessed from the name is the process of recruitment for a business who wants to recruit a new employee.
Legal controls on recruitment
There are many legal controls on recruitment so as to stop people for example not getting a job because of a certain reason such as the other person's gender, religion, race, ethnic origin etc. To read more on this continue following the arrow upwards to learn more on the legal controls on recruitment.
Legal Controls on recruitment GCSE BCS



Thank you for listening

The End

This act requires that all federal agencies, include in their contracts, that nobody will be discriminated against because of their:
Race
Colour
Creed
Nationality

Fair employment and treatment act

The race relations act is the act that prevents the mistreatment of people included in this act.
Items that are covered include:
Nationality
Colour
Race
Ethnic origin
National origin

Race Relations act

Sex discrimination act is the act that stops the different treatment of genders in the workplace. It protects:
Against people who would chose to employ someone just because of their gender.
The law states that:
No man should treat a women differently and the same goes for a woman treating a man differently because of their gender.

Sex discrimination act

The disability discrimination act stops the discrimination of people with disabilities in the workplace and in everyday life.
The law states that:
People with disabilities may not be treated differently in the workplace.
Public places must be accessible to people who are disabled.

Disability discrimination act

Discrimination is Being treated differently because of your:
Ethnic background.
Skin colour
Belonging to a group
Gender

What is discrimination

Equal play was put into place to stop people paying less because of their:
Gender
Race
Age
Skin colour

Equal pay

Personal data is facts and opinions about a person.
This is often the person in charge of an organization but it does not necessarily have to be. This person decides what sort of data the company needs to collect and also what the data is used for. This is also the person who must apply for permission to collect the data in the first place. The Data controller is also in charge of making sure that any storage, collection, or processing of the data is done within accordance with the data protection act.
This is the person overall responsible for enforcing the data protection act across the UK. This is the person organizations need to apply to in order to gain permission to collect and store personal data. The informational commissioner also provides advice to companies and the government about issues related to the DPA. They also investigate complaints that are raised about any issues related to the DPA.
A data processor/ user is someone who processes or uses data as part of their job. This could be a customer service advisor who needs to look at a customers account to answer a query. It might also be a school secretary who needs to look up contact details about a particular student.
This is the person that the data is being collected from or stored about. This could be you.

Terms relevant to the data protection act
Data protection act eight principles
1. Personal data should be obtained fairly and lawfully.
Meaning- This means that you shall be told that the data is being collected and you should also be told what it shall be used for.

2. Personal data may only be held for specified and lawful purposes.
Meaning- The person must be told what the data shall be used for and why it shall be stored. The Data Controller has to state why they want to collect and store information when they apply for permission to be able to do so. If they use the data they have collected for other purposes, they are breaking the law.

3. Personal data should be adequate, relevant and not excessive for the required purpose
Meaning- Organizations should only collect the data that they need and no more. Your school needs to know your parent's phone number in case they need to contact them in an emergency. However, they do not need to know what your grandmother's name is, nor do they need to know your eye co lour. They should not ask, nor should they store such details since this would be excessive and would not be required to help with your education.

4. Personal data should be accurate and kept up-to-date
Meaning- Companies should do their best to make sure that they do not record the wrong facts about a data subject. Your school probably asks your parents to check a form once a year to make sure that the phone number and address on the school system is still correct.If a person asks for the information to be changed, the company should comply if it can be proved that the information is indeed incorrect.
Office layouts
There are three main types of office layouts that are most commonly used, each have their own advantages and disadvantages and some may be better suited for certain jobs rather than others.

These are:

Cellular- The cellular office layout is a layout where each employee usually has their own office that is often quite small and most of the time has basic equipment such as a computer, a phone and sometimes a printer.

Centralized- The centralized office layout is where there are many desks set up around the room and at each one of these large desks many people may work with basic equipment usually a computer, a phone etc. However the larger equipment would be kept in the center of the office so that it is easy for everyone to reach the equipment and is far more cost effective than the other alternatives as a printer will not need to be purchased for each individual employee.

Open- the open office layout is a layout where all of the employees would usually work in a large open area where all areas are easily accessible and is most effective when used for group work as all areas and people are easy to see.

More info on each across the arrows.
The centralized office layout is where there are many desks set up around the room and at each one of these large desks many people may work with basic equipment usually a computer, a phone etc. However the larger equipment would be kept in the center of the office so that it is easy for everyone to reach the equipment and is far more cost effective than the other alternatives as a printer will not need to be purchased for each individual employee.

Centralized
The cellular office layout is a layout where each employee usually has their own office that is often quite small and most of the time has basic equipment such as a computer, a phone and sometimes a printer.
Cellular
The open office layout is a layout where all of the employees would usually work in a large open area where all areas are easily accessible and is most effective when used for group work as all areas and people are easy to see.
Open
Physics equations 2
Power = work done/time taken
Density = Mass X Volume
Voltage (Volts) = Current X Resistance
Weight = Mass X acceleration due to gravity
wow
very fabulous
wow
Hardware
Inputs and outputs
Storage
Software
Hardware
Inputs and outputs
Storage
Hard disks
DVDs
CD-RWs
CD-ROM/CD-R
Blu-ray
Tape Streamer
Flash media
Network storage vs local storage
Storage measurements
Storage measurements
Bytes
Kilobytes
Megabytes
Gigabytes
Terabytes
Petabytes
Byte- Smallest form of storage
Kilobyte- 1024 bytes
Megabyte- 1024 Kilobytes
Gigabyte- 1024 megabytes
Terabyte- 1024 gigabytes
Petabyte- 1024 terabytes
Hard disks
DVD
DVD-RW
CD-ROM/CD-R
Blu-ray
Tape streamer
Flash media
Network storage vs local storage
A hard disk is a form of hard drive and is used to store information for future use.
The capacity for a hard disk is measured in the bytes system, or bytes per square inch.
DVD (digital versatile disk) is a form of data storage.
Data stored on a DVD can be in many different formats, the most common of which include,
DVD-RW (DVD-Read and Write).
Memory
A DVD-RW (Digital Versatile Disk- Read and Write). Is a type of DVD that can be edited and read easily.
CD-ROM (Compact Disk- Read only memory) is a type of compact disk that cannot be edited or changed easily as it is read only. The disk can usualy only be edited at construction, after which the disk becomes mostly unchangeable.
A Blu-ray is a type of compact disk that although similar to it in most ways is better in almost every other way.

A blu-ray disk can:
Hold up to 25 GB of storage or 50GB if it is duel layered.
A device used less commonly nowadays but was once widely used to quickly store data on a magnetic strip of tape of which could be read by a computer. This is less popular today however as there are much more efficient forms of storage.
Flash media is a form of storage that is connected usually through a universal serial bus and is usually very mobile as it is usually so small that it can fit in a pocket. However because of this limited size it does not hold a very large amount of data.
Disadvantages
Advantages
Advantages
Disadvantages
Local storage
Network storage
Using a network as storage means that if the local storage gets damaged in some way then the data on it would have been backed up to a network and so will not have been damaged.
If data is saved locally rather than on a network, if the network's hard drive gets damaged the files will not as they will be saved on your own local hard drive.
The hard drive of the network that is being used can be damaged by some means, and this can cause it to corrupt or possibly lose some data altogether.
A local hard drive can be damaged potentially causing damage or corruption to any data it may contain, or possibly lose it altogether.
The hard drive of a network usually has a very large amount of space so a massive amount of data can be stored on it.
The large amount of space on the networks hard drive would allow multiple users to store data on it.
A local hard drive rarely has as much space as a network's hard drive and so could fill up quite fast over time, depending on what the data is that is being stored.
User Interfaces (U.I.s)
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Menu User Interface (MUI)
Command User Interface (CUI)
Command User Interface (CUI)
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Menu User Interface (MUI)
The command user interface is an interface based around a command console in which commands are inputted into the computer. The commands have to be quite specific and the UI usually comes with little if any instruction so this user interface would mainly be used by experiences users only.
The menu user interface is an interface that is based around menus and o because of this it is quite a basic form of user interface that, although it may not be as complicated as the command user interface it may still require some prior experience with computers before it's use.
Deserts
Types of deserts
What is a desert?
A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location.
What is a desert?
English
Maths
I.C.T.
Geography
R.E.
Careers
Free time
Chemistry
A graphical user interface is a type of user interface that uses icons and text to give feedback to the user that helps them navigate the computer using symbols.
Read only memory
Random access memory
Cache
Types of deserts
Hot and dry deserts
Semiarid deserts
Coastal deserts
Cold deserts
Hot and dry deserts
Semiarid deserts
Coastal deserts
Cold deserts
The seasons are generally warm throughout the year and very hot in the summer. The winters usually bring little rainfall.
Temperatures exhibit daily extremes because the atmosphere contains little humidity to block the Sun's rays. Desert surfaces receive a little more than twice the solar radiation received by humid regions and lose almost twice as much heat at night. Many mean annual temperatures range from 20-25° C. The extreme maximum ranges from 43.5-49° C. Minimum temperatures sometimes drop to -18° C.
The summers are moderately long and dry, and like hot deserts, the winters normally bring low concentrations of rainfall. Summer temperatures usually average between 21-27° C. It normally does not go above 38° C and evening temperatures are cool, at around 10° C. Cool nights help both plants and animals by reducing moisture loss from transpiration, sweating and breathing. Furthermore, condensation of dew caused by night cooling may equal or exceed the rainfall received by some deserts. As in the hot desert, rainfall is often very low and/or concentrated. The average rainfall ranges from 2-4 cm annually.
The cool winters of coastal deserts are followed by moderately long, warm summers. The average summer temperature ranges from 13-24° C; winter temperatures are 5° C or below. The maximum annual temperature is about 35° C and the minimum is about -4° C. In Chile, the temperature ranges from -2 to 5° C in July and 21-25° C in January.
These deserts are characterized by cold winters with snowfall and high overall rainfall throughout the winter and occasionally over the summer. They occur in the Antarctic, Greenland and the Nearctic realm. They have short, moist, and moderately warm summers with fairly long, cold winters. The mean winter temperature is between -2 to 4° C and the mean summer temperature is between 21-26° C.
Read only memory (ROM)
Random access memory (RAM)
Cache
Meiosis and mitosis
Meiosis
Mitosis
Meiosis
Mitosis
Writer's craft
Types of writer's craft
What is writer's craft
Types of writer's craft
What is writer's craft
Alliteration
Euphemism
Hyperbole
Metaphor
Simile
Onomatopoeia
Narrator
Paragraphing
Sentence structure
Punctuation
Juxtaposition
Alliteration
Euphemism
Hyperbole
Metaphor
Simile
Onomatopoeia
Narrator
Paragraphing
Sentence structure
Punctuation
Hardware is physical data/equipment that can actually be touched as opposed to software which is entirely digital and cannot be touched.
Eg.
hard drive (not the contents of the hard drive).
Paper.
Software
Software is data or tools/equipment which are purely digital and so cannot be physically interacted with such as programs, computer files etc.
Juxtaposition
Validation and Verification
Validation
Verification
Validation
Verification
Is a method of ensuring that the data is reasonable and accurate. It attempts to make sure that as few errors as possible are in the data that is entered. Various methods of validation exist and these include type, range, presence and length checks plus the use of check digits. These will be discussed in more detail in the next section. There are many methods of doing this.
Type check
Range check
Presence check
Check digit
Spell check
Length check
This is the process of checking that the data once entered matches the original source data. The most popular method is double entry. In this case the data is entered twice, and both copies are then compared for discrepancies. If a discrepancy does occur the data is rejected and re-entry must take place.
Inputs
Outputs
Inputs
Outputs
An input is something that puts data into a computer such as a mouse or keyboard.
Something that gives feedback to the user such as a speaker or monitor.
When gathering the data it is important that no errors occur. Processes need to be in place to ensure that the data gathered is without errors.
Type check
Check digit
Presence check
Range check
Length check
Spell check
This is when the data entered must conform to a certain type of character.
Making sure the entered data falls within a specified range.
This is when there must be some data to enter - there must not be missing data.
This is when the entered data must be a certain number of characters.
A check digit is a special type of validation check. A check digit is a method of ensuring that the very lengthy list of numbers in a bar code has been entered correctly. The check digit is a number which has been mathematically calculated and added onto the the end of the list of numbers. By the time the computer has input the original list of numbers it has worked out what the last number should be. If it finds it does not match up with this last number (the check digit) then it knows an error inputting the data has occurred and it does it again. This process is very common with the inputting of EAN numbers underneath bar codes on products or an ISBN book number.
This is when the computer checks the words used with a dictionary to make sure all words are spelled correctly.
This is memory that cannot be edited and can only be read or viewed by the reader, although it can not be changed.
This is also considered to be the computer's main memory as it stores data on the program currently being worked on. This memory is volatile as it is constantly active and is deleted when the computer is turned off.
Cache is a form of memory that is collected by the computer when running a program or website etc. It then uses the memory so as it can run the task faster next time.
Free time revision questions
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Free time revision questions
Free time revision questions
Free time revision questions
Free time revision questions
Free time revision questions
Free time revision questions
Free time revision questions
Free time revision questions
Indices
Meiosis is the splitting and production of sex cells (eggs, sperm) and works slightly different from how mitosis works.
During meiosis sex cells divide to multiply and spread genetic information over a large area.

In meiosis homologous chromosomes separate leading to daughter cells that are not genetically identical.
I
Mitosis is the spreading and reproduction of genetic materials in cells.
In mitosis the daughter cells are identical to the parent as well as to each other.
Which is why if something is wrong with the parent cell that issue will be passed on to the daughter cells.
Names to remember
Lewis Pasteur- Discoverer that bacteria comes from the air.
Edward Jenner- Discoverer of the vaccine.
Waves
Exaggerating a description of something. Eg. Larger than a planet.
File formats
Data compression
List

Saying something in a different way, usually so as to avoid offending someone.
eg. Passed away.
Similar to a simile, only a metaphor is saying it is something, not that it is similar to it.
Similar to a metaphor, although a simile is saying that something is similar to another thing using the words "like" or "as".
Viruses and virus protection
There are multiple types of viruses.
Trojan horse
Spyware
Worm
Firewall
Anti-Virus software
Networks
There are different types of networks. this section will give information on.
Lan
Wan
Advantages and disadvantages of a network

LAN
WAN
LAN, or Local Area Network, is a type of network designed to go over a small geological area. Lan networks more commonly use wires to connect devices together as it is over a short distance. Lan networks also are more likely to use a file server to store their data than other network types.
WAN, or Wide Area Network, is type of network that is spread over a large area. This type of network is rarely wired, this is most likely to the large time and cost required to put in the cabling over such a large area. A good example of this is the internet as it goes over the whole planet and so would be considered a wide area network.
Advantages and Disadantages of LAN and WAN
Disadvantages
Advantages
Advantages
Disadvantages
LAN
WAN
Easily communicate with multiple people at long distances using the WAN.
Local area network allows for easy communication through the network to people on the local area network.
Presentational devices
Types of presentational devices
What are presentational devices.
Types of presentational devices
What are presentational devices
Alliteration
Bullet points
Captions
Colour
Columns
Fonts
Headings
Graphs and diagrams
Imagery
Italics
Logos
Maps
Paragraphs
Pictures and images
Underlining
Alliteration
Bullet points
Captions
Colour
Columns
Fonts
Headings
Graphs and diagrams
Imagery
Italics
Logos
Maps
Paragraphs
Pictures and images
Underlining
Presentational devices are devices that are used in things such as advertisements in order to make it more interesting and more effective.
Energy (Joules) = Voltage X Charge
Voltage (Volts) = Energy / Charge
Charge (Coulombs) = Energy / Voltage
Voltage
Frequency
Wavelength
1 (one)
Frequency
Time period of wave
Time period of wave (seconds) = 1 / Frequency
Energy
Voltage
Charge
Wavelength
Practical revision
In the practical paper, questions may be asked involving each of these pieces of software, follow the arrow for more information on how to use each of the different pieces of software for each task you may be asked.

Excel

Access

Word

Publisher

PowerPoint
Excel
Access
Word
Publisher
PowerPoint
Word is as the name suggests, a method of creating text and is primarily used for the creation of letters and other things that require a large amount of text. Although many of the things that can be done with word can also be done with publisher, word tends to be a simpler method of performing these actions as publisher is designed to be used to create more professional documents.
Letter writing

Logo design

Poster/flyer/data capture form design
Publisher is used to create documents containing primarily images, colours and unlike word, can easily rearrange the layout of these things as this software is designed for more professional use, other than this, it is very similar to word. Although word may be considered to be significantly easier to use and may also be considerably faster.
Poster/flyer/data capture form design

Logo design

Letter writing


Access and excel are both quite similar to each other, however they are different in one major way. Access is designed primarily to store data on a group of subjects (usually people)
REVISION - A Level
Moving image arts
Engineering BTEC
Business studies
Software systems development
CAM AND CAD
Interface between CAD and CAM
2D CAD
2D CAD
DXF
DXF
Idea
3D CAD
IGES
STL
Rapid prototype
Part
3D CAM
2D CAM
SIM
SIM
Post
process
CNC Program
CNC simulation software
Word document with coordinates
CNC
NVC

Part
CMM
Checked to CAD file
Pros and cons for each subject part
Information on topics
Adding value
Adding value is something that is done to make an item more profitable for selling onto consumers.
The value added to an item is calculated by subtracting the items final selling price and subtracting the cost to produce the item from that.
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