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Adult Learner

Classic Theories: A Summary

Micki Lucero

on 24 September 2012

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Transcript of Adult Learner

BF Skinner Behaviorism Expansion of behaviorism Cognitivism Robert Gagne Gange's 9 events of learning Abraham Maslow Maslow's Hierarchy Belongingness Humanist Approach Learning is not behavioral or cognitive
as much as it is a personal growth process.
(Alkhadi, 2009) Social Cognitive Approach Edward Thorndike Connectionsim Malcolm Knowles Andragogy Each theory and layer within has influenced richer change in how adults learn. We can only advance from here. The thought of theory application is eclectic, similar to adult learners. I value to use of various aspects of theories. The moment of truth is when and how will I proceed with these theories? -Micki 2012 Adult Learning Theories
The Classics push lever receive food keep pushing lever continue receiving food TIME self esteem love needs safety needs physiological needs hunger, thirst, sleep, sex, respiration need for an orderly world, undisrupted routine is helpful affection & belongingness complimented by others
gain self respect & self esteem Hey, I'm satisfied, lets do this! 1. gain attention 2. inform learner of objectives 3. stimulate recall/prior learning 4. stimulus material 5. provide learner guidance 6. elicit performance 7. provide feedback 8. assess performance 9. enhance retention & transfer Considers the individual perspective and creating meaning from the learning environment (Jackson, 2009).
Building upon what we already have. Constructivism Learner finds meaning to what is being taught. Considers both previous experience and new knowledge (Jackson 2009). Social cognitive theory is explained "by observing others, people acquire knowledge, rules, skills, strategies, and beliefs" Jackson (2009) Extension of behaviorism
Operant conditioning learning form consequences positive consequences lead to repeated positive behavior (McLeod 2007) Knowles explained HOW and WHY adults learn.

Self directed, responsible, resist arbitrary information, apply experiences, motivated by tasks ( Kenner & Weinerman, 2011).

Meeting human needs and human goals (Harper & Ross, 2011). The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education Digital education Strategies (2012) "SNAPSHOT" of 9 events Short video-original BF Skinner Becoming an adult is no easy transition, especially when I have been in school for 20 years of my life. I have been dubbed a student for most of my waking days and thus my identity has evolved in classrooms, desk chairs, and on various campuses. I have developed my sense of uniqueness along the way, but I am surely a product of an education ecosystem.

Reading and studying the adult learning theories has helped me understand the transitions I have endured from child to adult. Presented in this prose essay are my thoughts on each of the theoretical constructs included in Module 1 Classic Adult Learning Theories. On Behaviorism On Cognitivism On Andragogy. On Connectionism On the Humanistic Approach On Gagne's 9 Events of Learning On Social Cognitive Theory On Constructivism THE END

Works Cited

Alkadhi, S. (2009) Learning Theory: Adult Education: Andragogy. California State
University Monterey Bay, 1-26.

Craig, R. (Ed.) Application of Adult Learning Theory. The ASTD Training and
Development Handbook (pp.253-264).

Grassberger, R. and Brady, K. (2012, September). Classic Theories. Retrieved from:

Harper, L. and Ross, J. (2011) An application of Knowles’ Theories of Adult Education to
an Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Studies Program. The Journal of Continuing
Higher Education , 59, 161-166.

Jackson, L. (2009) Revisiting Adult learning theory through the Lens of an Adult Learner.

Kenne, C. and Weinerman, J. (2011) Adult Learning Theory: Applications to Non-
Traditional College Students. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 41,

McLeod, S. A. (2007). Edward Thorndike. Retrieved from

Silton, N., Flannelly, L., Flannelly, K., and Galek, K. (2011). Toward a Theory of Holistic
Needs and the Brain. Holistic Nursing Practice, 258-265.

The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education Digital Education Strategies
. Retrieved from:'s_Nine_Events.pdf. (2012) FOR ADULTS, IT IS
NEVER REALLY On Gagne’s 9 events of learning (The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education, 2012). I will not argue that these events are essential for me when being taught in the classroom. I know within 5 minutes if a course or lecture is going to worthy or unworthy of my time. I appreciate each of the 9 events and I want to experience them as often as possible. Although I do not experience these 9 events in all my learning environments, I have completed a few courses that were engaging from beginning to end. Those courses are hallmarks in my education that will be discussed the rest of my life. Through this observation I know that there is a balance between teaching well and teaching not so well; both exist so that I am reminded of what I value in my learning experience. On cognitivism I agree that what I currently write is a reflection of previous experiences and application of meaning to adult learning theories. If I cannot identify meaning in a topic, then I will not pursue it as necessary. However, as my cognitive abilities develop so do I and I am determined to find some meaning even if it is that “this is horrible and boring, do not ever teach this way”. Maturity has brought forth my abilities connect previous to current. On behaviorism I agree that I have learned to seek positive behavior for positive rewards. My entire college experience has been a platform for behavior development. The turn of my 21st birthday brought about more behaviors that I had ever noticed myself experience. I tested my body, my thoughts, and my actions. I ran into negative consequences right away, but because they were negative I avoided testing myself in those capacities. Bf Skinner & Edward Thorndike would say that I learned how to do the right thing to receive positive reward which is more effective than being punished for negative behaviors (Alkadhi, 2009), (Mcleod, 2007). Those moments were alive with practice of responsibility. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is concept that I find very interesting and it’s tool I have used in my life when assessing the situations of people and myself. Basic needs must met before true fulfillment can be achieved (Silton, Flannelly, Flannelly, & Galek, 2011). Throughout childhood, I experienced a spectrum of conflicts regarding separation from parents, violence, drug use, and abandonment. Of course when my environment changed so did my transition through the hierarchy. I’ll tough more on that in social cognitive theory. On the humanistic approach I appreciate the simplicity that all human beings have potential (Alkadhi, 2009), (Grassberger & Brady, 2012). This approach compliments behaviorism with emphasis on self-fulfillment. And if I am to succeed in being an educator or personal coach I may as well see through a humanistic lens. I have been both a wonderful human and a very confused human, but regardless I know that I have potential for something. This is an enlightening feeling that has occurred within me recently. On social cognitive theory I am the product of my personal determinants, environmental determinants, and behavioral determinants (Jackson, 2009), (Alkahdi, 2009). The reciprocation of these three determinants have impacted me significantly in my professional and personal arenas. I have learned to be firm in my identity but also flexible. I can manage different roles in my life because I have worked through new environments; I have learned what acceptable behavior is and is not. Having learned about social cognitive theory from health behavior perspective I am aware of the three determinants that influence and alter behavior. Challenge arises when my awareness grows and take control over certain determinants; I think this idea relates back to my assertion that transition to adulthood is challenging. On connectionism I commit myself to connectionism daily. Edward Thorndike’s theory that positive reward leads to positive behavior is foundation work for connectionism (McLeod, 2007). If the theory were switched to negative reward leads to positive behavior you would find yourself in a middle school principal’s office asking why child behavior is so difficult to manage. Simply expressed, connectionism works better when we know there is a positive reward and pair positive behavior with it. On andragogy I thank the recent work from my adult learner class for the introduction of this material. Prior to this class I knew nothing of adult learning theories and concepts. Malcolm Knowles asserted that:
Adults do learn a differently than children
Adults are task oriented
Are self-directed (self-directed learning
Resist random and arbitrarily taught information
Adults achieve personal satisfaction and basic human goals
(Harper & Ross, 2011), (Alkahdi, 2009), (Craig, accessed 2012), (Kenne & Weinerman, 2011), (Grassberger & Brady, 2012). I enjoy tasks especially because I see benefits of knowing how to apply content to my goals at this stage of my life. The way to achieving these goals is paved with self directed learning, constructing meaning between what they know and what is being taught. On constructivism I construct meaning in my learning by admitting what I already know and building on top of that existing knowledge (Silton et al., 2011), (Craig, accessed 2012), (Harper & Ross, 2011), (Jackson, 2009), Kenne & Weinerman, 2011), and (The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education, 2012). In my university teaching arena I provide students with tasks that require them to admit what they know or believe about a specific topic. Next, I introduce content that is comprehensive and thorough. In doing this they may think I am trying to show them what they do not know, my response to this thought is in order to construct meaning you must build with what you already have and only then should you move forward. This process in adult learning is one that I deem appropriate to explain while they are in the learning environment. No need to hide from students what I am applying because awareness is essential for growing. Awareness is one way learners can build self-esteem as noted Maslow’s Hierarchy.
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