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Energy Systems

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Megan Potterton

on 18 March 2015

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Transcript of Energy Systems

Energy Systems
Phosphocreatine
Phosphocreatine is stored alongside ATP (Adenosine triphosphate), stores are limited. ATP is the energy currency linked to intensity and duration or physical activity, the more intensive the exercise the more the ATP. Phosphocreatine is stored in the muscles, large amount of energy is released when broken down, and when it does the energy released is used to resynthersise ATP. This system is explosive and is only used for the first 10 seconds of exercise because its used for high intensity exercise. It doesn't require oxygen, it works anaerobically. The recovery all depends on how long you rest for, 92% recovery of peak power output in 3 minutes.
The advantages - Does not need oxygen to be present, no bi-products produced so recovery time isn't delayed, and ATP can be created allowing the athlete to perform at their maximum.
The disadvantages - Small amount of oxygen produces, soon after lactic acid occurs.


ADP + creatine phosphate ATP + creatine
ATP
The amounts of ATP produced by each energy system
- Creatine Phosphate Energy System
ADP + creatine phosphate ATP + creatine
- Lactic Acid Energy System
Glucose 2ATP + 2lactic acid + heat
Glycogen 3ATP + 2lactic acid + heat
- Aerobic Energy System
Glucose + oxygen 38ATP + CO2 + water + heat
Fatty acids + oxygen 129ATP + CO2 + water + heat

Energy Systems
All movement requires energy the method by which your body generates
energy is determined by the intensity and duration of the activity being carried
out.
Activities that require short bursts of energy like sprinting or jumping require
the body to produce large amounts of energy over a short period of time,
compared to marathon running or cycling that require the body to provide
continued energy over a long period of time.
There are three types of energy systems, they are:
- Creatine Phosphate System
- Lactic Acid System
- Aerobic System
Lactic Acid
The Lactic Acid energy system - also known as anaerobic glycolysis, is a short term energy system and works anaerobically - it doesn't require oxygen. It lasts around 60-90 seconds performing maximal work. The breakdown and remove lactic acid could take 30 minutes or could take up to 2 hours. Lactic Acid is also known as anaerobic glycolysis, which is the break down of sugar it supplies the necessary energy from which ATP is manufactured.
This system involves the partial breakdown of glucose to form lactic acid in a number of chemical reactions known as glycolysis. The glucose for this process comes from the glucose stored in the blood or from the breakdown of glycogen in the liver or muscle.
The advantages - It produces more ATP than the PC system, ATP is quickly provided and no delay due to oxygen not being required.
The disadvantage - Lactic acid produced reduced blood pH making it more acidic preventing enzymes from working properly. Fatigue, poor performance.
Glucose 2ATP + 2lactic acid + heat
Glycogen 3ATP + 2lactic acid + heat
Aerobic System
A sporting example for the Creatine Phosphate energy system, is the 100 metre sprint or weight lifting. As these sports are high in intensity, and this energy system uses the energy really quickly.
These athletes also use power and are very explosive movements which require ATP and high energy.
Sporting Example
At the beginning of a sport the body can not produce oxygen fast enough to deliver to the muscles, therefore the body goes through an anaerobic process for the first few minutes - around 2 - 3 minutes. This is a long term energy system and requires oxygen to be present.
The Aerobic energy system also produces water and carbon dioxide - this doesn't affect the ability of the muscles to contract.
The Aerobic energy system can be broken down into three sections:
- glycolysis
- Kreb's cycle
- Electron transport chain (ETC)

The recovery time for the aerobic energy system depends on the sport that has taken place. If its been used for a short period of time, where the glycogen stores haven't worn out, then it doesn't take long to recover. Whereas, if its been used for a long period of time, the glycogen stores could be exhausted and could take days to recover.
The advantages - It provides a lot of energy.
The disadvantages - Only when oxygen is present and cannot produce ATP at high intensity levels.


Glucose + oxygen 38ATP + CO2 + water + heat
Fatty acids + oxygen 129ATP + CO2 + water + heat
Sporting Example
Sporting Example
A sporting example for the Aerobic energy system, is football or a marathon run as these sports last a long period of time, so the only way to produce energy is by having the presence of oxygen.
During this system they require constant energy and resynthesis of ATP which is produced in the aerobic system, this will prevent them from getting fatigued and decrease in performance.
A sporting example for the Lactic Acid energy system, is 400 metre race, Lactic Acid builds up due to the lack of oxygen and fatigue occurs in runs between 300 metres and 800 metres.
When going beyond this point you are entering a different system, which would be the aerobic system. Eating the right foods will provide you with that little bit more energy, and improve performance. If not eating the right foods lactic acid can build up pretty quickly.
The body maintains a continuous supply of energy through the use of ATP. the more intensive the activity the more ATP.
A+P+P+P = ATP is formed when adenosine
disphosphate binds with a
phosphate.

A+P+P-P = A lot of energy is stored in the bond
between the second and the third
phosphate groups, which can be
used to fuel chemical reactions.

A+P+P P = when a cell needs energy it breaks
the bond between the phosphate
groups to form ADP and a free
phosphate molecule.
ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate
ADP = Adenosine Disphosphate
Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose or glycogen to produce ATP.
The body switches to Glycogen to fuel working muscles once PC stores have been worn out. The breakdown of Glycogen provides the energy to rebuild ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) from ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate), however Glycogen which is stored in the liver and muscles must first be converted through the process of Glycolysis.
Glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid. Oxygen is now present the reaction can proceed through the energy systems as lactic acid is not produced. 2 ATP produced.

The Krebs cycle is also known as the TCA cycle.
Pyruvic acid is produced in the first stage diffuses into the matrix of mitochondria where it is broken down. This combines with coenzyme and (CoA) to form Acetyl CoA, which combines with oxaloacetric acid to form citric acid.
The Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondria, taking up oxygen, producing carbon dioxide and water as waste products, which ADP is transformed into energy of ATP.
Oxidation takes place - hydrogen is removed from the compound, and sufficient energy is released to synthesis two molecules of ATP. 2 ATP produced.

Electron Transport Chain is a chain of compounds that handover electrons from one to another, they do this through redox reactions joined with the transfer of proton across a membrane to create a proton to rise that boosts ATP synthesis.

34 ATP produced.

Total: 38 ATP produced
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain
Sport

Archery
Basketball
Hockey
Netball
Football
Creatine Phosphate
Energy System
Lactic Acid
Energy System
Aerobic
Energy System
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
-
Low
High
Low
High
References
http://www.hsc.csu.edu.au/pdhpe/core2/focus2/focus1/4007/2-1-1/fac2112.htm

http://www.teachpe.com/physiology/energysystems.php

http://www.hsc.csu.edu.au/pdhpe/core2/focus2/focus1/4007/2-1-1/fac2113.htm

http://www.brianmac.co.uk/energy.htm
This graph shows that the ATP store creates maximum amount of energy production but only lasts for 2 seconds.
The ATP - PC doesn't reach the same level of energy production does, it only reaches 75% as it lasts longer.
The lactic acid system reaches around 50% of energy production and lasts for 60 - 90 seconds. The graph also shows that the lactic acid system drops rapidly after reaching its maximal energy production due to the amount of lactic acid and fatigue i the muscles. Lastly the aerobic system pretty much just stays the same level of energy production and lasts up to 2 - 3 hours as it relies on food to create energy.
Archery is low in lactic acid energy as they are not holding the bow for a long period of time, if held for a long time the energy will change to a higher lactic acid system.
Basketball and netball are high in PC due to having explosive amount of energy and moderate levels of lactic acid. The aerobic system is low due there being short, sharp sprints and jumps. As they don't require as much oxygen.
Football and hockey are higher in the aerobic system as they run for long periods of time, which requires more oxygen for the working muscles so athletes are able to perform at their best.However, they also require moderate amount of lactic acid system this will be needed for parts of their game which will require them to sprint or continuously run for up to a minute at high intensity. As they do this many times during the game when sprinting to the ball or chasing a player they are constantly requiring the lactic acid system over the 90 minutes of the game. They also require high amounts of creatine phosphate system which provides high amounts of energy for up to 10 seconds and is needed for aspects of the game. Such as jumping to head to ball or sprinting to the ball over a short distance to tackle an opponent and require high amounts of energy.
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