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Mythology's Underworld

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Lori Turner

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of Mythology's Underworld

Places and inhabitants
The Greek Underworld
Entrance
Elysium Fields
The Greeks claimed there were several entrances to the underworld. The entrances were supposed to be hidden from most mortals in an underwater caver or a cave. When a mortal died, Hermes lead their souls to the entrance.

Erebus is also used to refer to a region of the Underworld where the dead had to pass after dying. The dead waited here for judgement.
Erebus: The vestibule
The Underworld zone of eternal torment, where the greatest sinners were punished for their transgressions. The worst of these offenders were deemed to be those who had sinned against the gods themselves. The greatest crime of all was to abuse the gods' hospitality. All the more so since to be on familiar terms with the great deities was a particular favor, reserved for the elect.
Shades: If you had no payment for Charon, you would become a Shade. A ghostlike shadow of your former self. Forever stuck on the far bank of the Acheron river,
Charon: Charon was the ferryman of the underworld. You could not cross the Acheron river without paying Charon.
Aeacus=Europeans
Rhadamanthus=Asiatics
Minos=Greeks, Lybians and difficult cases
Acheron River: Aka The River of Woe, The River of Sadness, The River of Affliction. Acheron was originally the son of a Gaea, but was accused of quenching the thirst of the Titans during the battle for control of the world. Zeus threw him into the Underworld and turned him into a river.
The 3 judges were son's of Zeus. All three were given the task of passing judgement on all mortals who entered the Underworld. From their judgement, mortals were assigned to Asphodel. Tartarus or the Elysium Fields.
Hermes
Tartarus
Cerberus: Three headed guard dog at the entrance of Tartarus.
Triple Walls intended to trap the tormented in.
Sisyphus: Tricked Persephone. Sisyphean task- Endlessly laborious or futile.
Tantalus: Tried to feed the Gods his son.
Ixion: Tried to win Hera's love. Crime arrogance and presumption.
Thanatos was the Greek personification of death. In Hesiod's Theogony, Thanatos is described as pitiless, making even the gods hate him, even though he cannot kill them since they are immortal.
Hypnos dwelt in the underworld and never set his eyes on the sun, but during the hours of darkness came softly into the world, and brought sweet rest to men.
Morpheus - The Greek god of dreams. He lies on a ebony bed in a dim-lit cave, surrounded by poppy. He appears to humans in their dreams in the shape of a man. He is responsible for shaping dreams, or giving shape to the beings which inhabit dreams.
Named after the mythical character. Upon witnessing the destruction of his ship, he quotes the Biblical Nebuchadnezzar; "I have dreamed a dream... And now that dream is gone from me."
Lethe - A river in Hades whose water caused forgetfulness of the past in those who drank of it.
THE ELYSIUM FIELDS was the final resting place for the souls of heroes and virtuous men. The ancients often distinguished between two such realms--the islands of the Blessed and the Lethean fields of Hades.
Grove of Persephone - In Greek myth, before the pure souls could enter the Elysium Fields, they would first come to a grove of black poplars and sterile willows. Here, the souls would meet with Hades and his wife Persephone.
Obulus
Phlegethon - River of fire
River Styx: River of Styx is also known as the River of Oaths. Originally she was the daughter of the Titans. During the war for power she sided with the Olympians. She was rewarded for her help by being turned into a magic river in the Underworld. Any being, including the Gods, whose made a promise or swore on the River Styx was permanently bound to that oath. It was unbreakable.
Hecate: The goddess of charms, enchantments, magic, sorcery and some say the dead. She was described as haunting and lurking through tombs and the scenes of crimes (especially those resulting in death). She is sometimes also connected or confused with Selene, the goddess of the dark side of the moon. Hecate symbolizes the dark within us, the part of our psyche we refuse to acknowledge.
Nemesis:The Goddess of Punishment and Retribution. She is the sister of the Fates and is concerned with mortals being given just punishments
Furies: The Furies were three sisters used by Zeus to pursue sinners on earth. They are described as witch-like women with serpents for hair and eyes dripping with blood. They had the power to drive mortals mad during the pursuit.
The Fates: As you head to your final destination, you must pass by the Fates. The Fates are three sisters responsible for your life and death. They Spun, measured, designed and cut the thread of life for all mortals.
Cocytus: The River of Lamentation. Those trapped in Asphodel would wander Cocytus.
Asphodel: Some say it is located at the exit of Erebus, and some say in the Elysium Fields (covered later). Asphodel Fields is where the normal, neutral people went once they died. It was just a giant wasteland basically.
Isle of the Blessed
Palace of Hades
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