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electricity and magnetism

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samar Al Araj

on 11 November 2012

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Transcript of electricity and magnetism

Electricity and Magnetism Electricity definition : Static Electricity: When you rub two objects with each other electrons transfer in one of them causing both objects to have different charge from the surroundings. Example:
when you rub a ballon
with your hair it causes
your hair to stand up. The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. Where Electrons come from: Charges interactions: Gain electrons negative charge

lose electrons positive charge Electric field: Surrounding each charge there is an electric field. through this field a charge is able to pull or push another charge. Static electricity examples: Bonus question: Why the hair of this girl in the picture stood up like this? Hint:
The device in this picture is
called a Van De Graaf generator,
that generates a lot of electrons. Electricity and materials: There is a strong relationship between electricity and materials which is called; Conductivity Conductivity:
it is the ability of the material to allow electricity to move from point to another through this material Conductors Semi Conductors Insulators Materials: Materials' examples: Conductors Semi Conductors Insulators Metals like:
silver
copper
gold
iron
water Plastic
Ceramic
Rapper
glass
air
oil Silicon

Diamonds Charge detection: Electroscope Via induction Via conduction Bonus Question: Dose a solution of water and sugar conduct electricity ? and why ? Current Electricity: Current Electricity: is the flow of electronics in a conductive material such as copper wires The flow of electrons are similar to the flow of water from a high pressure water tank to another lower. but in cases of electricity it moves from high voltage to a lower one. Static electricity: a kind of electricity produced by rubbing 2 different materials together to create friction/heat which makes static electricity.
Current electricity: a kind of electricity that has continuous movement of electrons What is the different between static electricity and current electricity Electrical concepts : current voltage Resistance Power ( I ) (V) (R) (P) Ampere (A) Volts (v) Ohms ( ) Watt (W) The rate at which energy is transferred. Is a flow of electric charge through a conductive medium. Electric potential energy per unit charge. Is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that element. Coulomb's law: Electric charges (q) has a unit called : coulomb (c) unit conversion Current (I): It is the quantity of electric charge that passes a cross sectional area of a conductor every second. Conversion of units: Electrical units: Electric Voltage: Voltage : is a measure of the amount of energy available to push charges around a circuit. it is supplied by electric cells and household power points. Voltage is also called: potential difference. Energy is the ability to do work. i.e. the more energy a device has, the more work it can do.

Power is work over time. The power is how much work can be done in a unit time.

Energy is in Joules

Power is in Watts, aka Joules/seconds Energy and power: Cells and batteries : Electric circuit: circuit: is a closed path along which electrical charges (electrons) flow powered by an energy source Circuit's symbols: Resistance: The electrical resistance of an electrical element is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that element Ohm's law: Resistance color code reading Magnetism: Is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.This magnetic field is a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets. Two Types of Magnet: Permanent Magnet

Temporary Magnet Magmatic Field: Electromagnetism: The Right Hand rule: The direction of the magnetic field is determined by the right-hand rule Temporary Magnet: Electromagnet An electromagnet is a piece of wire intended to generate a magnetic field with the passage of electric current through it. Magnetic Induction Power and Energy Power is the rate at which work is done, or the rate at which heat is generated P= I x V Electrical Energy consumed is equal to the Power multiplied by time, unit Jouls (J) E = P x t DC and AC current Direct current (DC) is the flow of electrons in a single direction.

Alternation current (AC) is the flow of electrons which constantly changes direction.
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