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Chemistry and Macromolecules

The big picture of how atoms make the molecules that make up our cells. Key Words: atoms, molecules, macromolecules, DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, bonds
by

tdelia_biology @irsc

on 10 May 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry and Macromolecules

Atoms Protons Neutorns Electrons Electrons Determine How Atoms Interact Chemically
Electrons are important for chemical reactions and making and breaking bonds Stable,
Non-Recative A Eukaryotic Cell Nucleus = DNA Plamsa Membrane = Lipids DNA Sugar Phosphate Backbone = Strong Covalent Bonds Solid Lines Linking Atoms
Sharing Electrons Weak Hyrogen Bonds Interior = Dotted Lines Note the Elements
1. Carbon
2. Hydrogen
3. Oxygen
4. Nitrogen
5. Phosphorous 98% of Living Organimsm Made of C, H, O, N P, S Cytoskeleton = Proteins Sugar-Phosphate Backbone
Phosphate Functional Group! -OH on the DNA Ends
Hydroxyl Functional Group! Proteins Cytoskeleton is made up of a many repeats of a folded polypeptide called Actin Actin Filament Diagram Actin Filament Molecules One Actin Polypeptide Actin is a protein made many amino acids linked together and folded properly Protein Folding Individual Amino Acids Carboxyl Functional Group Amino Functional Group Primary Structure Amino Acid 1 Amino Acid 2 Amino Acid 3 Peptide Bond = Strong Covalent Bond Holding Amino Acids Together Covalent Bond: Sharing of electrons Side Note: Making A Molecule Join Two Amino Acids to make a Protein Dehydration (aka Condensation) Reaction
Water is lost as amino acids join in a colvalent bond called a peptide bond Secondary Structure Alpha Helix Beta Sheet Hydrogen Bonds:
Weak
Hold Secondary Structure Together
Represented as dotted lines Tertiary Structure Quaternary Structure Chemistry Nucleus:
Neutrons are neutral
Protons are positive Electrons:
Negative
Orbit around nucleus in shells Reactive: Interact to fill outer shell
Interact = share, gain or loose electrons until their outer shell is full Shell 1: Holds 2 electrons Shell 2: Holds 8 electrons Shell 3: Holds 8 electrons Atoms Bonds 1) Covalent
Sharing pairs of electrons to fill outer shells
Strong Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell
Needs 4 more to fill outer shell Each of the 4 Hydrogens has one electron in its outer shell. Needs only 1 more. Solution: Covalent Bonds Sharing Electron Pairs!
Carbon participates in 4 covalent bonds with 4 hydrogen atoms.
The carbon fills its outer shell with 8 electrons
The Hydrogren fills its outer shell with 2 electrons Some Elements are not Good at Sharing!
Polar Covalent Bonds Pairs of electrons shared in covalent bonds in water are not shared equally The oxygen is electronegative:
Electronegative atoms pull electrons closer to them
Results in a partial negative charge around the oxygen
Partial positive charge around the hydrogens
These 2 partial charges make water POLAR! Just like a magnet or bateries has poles! Polar Molecules Participate in Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen Bond (dotted line) Opposites Attact
Partial Negative Oxygen
Partial Positive Hyrogen 2) Ionic Bonds
One atom looses an electron = cation (+)
One atom gains an electron = anion (-)
The 2 ions are then attracted to each other based on their opposite charges = Ionic Bond Looses an electron Gains an electron Cation (+) Anion (-) 3) Hydrophobic Interactions
Nonpolar molecules tend to interact with each other when they are in water
Water is polar, it does not "like" nonpolar substances
"Like Dissolves Like"


4) van der Waals Forces
Weak forces that occur when 2 nonpolar molecules are close to each other Hydrophobic molecules do not "like" polar water molecules Water Polarity: Gives water important properties
1) Ice floats
2) Evaporative cooling
3) High specific heat
4) Cohesion
5) Surface tension Phagosome
(Brings in Food) = Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Disaccharides The building blocks of carbohydrates Monosaccharide + Monosaccharide = Disaccharide Condensation (dehydration) Reaction
This is a "making things" reaction
Join 2 subunits in a covalent bond
Water is lost Glycosidic Linkage
Covalent Bond that joins monosaccharides Polysaccharides MANY Monosaccharides Polysaccharides:
Very long chain carbohydrates
Cellulose: structural component in plants
Starch: stored sugar (energy) in plants
Glycogen: stored sugar in animals Glycosidic Linkage Lipids Part 1: Phospholipids Phospholipid = Phosphate "Head" and Fatty Acid "Tail" Macromolecules that make up the plasma membrane
Amphipathic: polar and nonpolar regions on one molecule
Not polymers Note: Phosphate Group! Charge "Head" is Hydrophilic
Water has partial charges (polar)
Water "likes" substances with charges Hydrophobic Tail
No charges in the tail Lipids Part 2: Other Types of Lipids There are many other types of lipids found thourghout the cell and organism
Not just in the plasma membrane Triglycerides Fat molecules (saturate or unsaturated fat)
Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids
Joined by Ester Linkage (covalent bond) Condensation (dehydration) Reaction
This is a "making things" reaction
Water is lost Saturated Fatty Acids (Fats) Means each carbon is bound to as many hydrogens as possible
Saturated with Hyrdogen
Straight chains
Solid at room temperature
Animal Fats Unsaturated Fatty Acids (Fats) Some carbon to carbon double bonds
Kinked chains
Liquid at room temperature
Plant fats: oils (vegetable, olive oil) Other Lipids Vitamins
Steroids
Cholesterol
Hormones Note the common 4-ringed structures One Actin Polypeptide Atoms Molecules Cells Tissue Organs Organism Poplation Community Biosphere Levels of Organization Largest to Smallest Watch Video Watch Video Watch Video Watch Video
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