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Halil İbrahim Şenol

on 24 May 2014

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Transcript of Copy of UAV's PHOTOGRAMMETRY

An Octocopter mounted with a camera.
As of 2013, there is a wide range of UAVs that can capture imagery, from toys at the low-end to military drone surveying at the high end.
UAV stands for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. UAVs are to be understood as uninhabited and reusable motorized aerial vehicles states van Blyenburgh in 1999. Comparing UAV to manned aircraft, it is obvious that the main difference is that on the UAV no pilot is physically present in the aircraft. These vehicles are controlled by WI-FI, bluethooth or radio signals.
Early Investigations
Definition of UAV
Since the new techniques developed and new technologies integrated to the UAV's; system is now more accurate and has a wider range of tasks. Today we can process LIDAR data , orthoimages and apply 3-D visualization with these systems. These systems are powered with electricity, gas, and other fuel solutions.
Definition of UAV
Early Investigations
UAV Photogrammetry-Now and Then
UAV Photogrammetry-Accuracy
Advantages and Limitations of UAV systems
Classification of Photogrammetric UAV platforms
What do we need to do our own UAV's ?
Hüseyin Çapan
The use of UAV systems as photogrammetric data acquisition platforms
UAV-borne LiDAR
New generation UAV's are equipped with a multi-sensor system called ”hybrid IMU”, which combines the GPS/IMU data, using the image orientation resulting from bundle block adjustment.

In 1908, Neubronner patented his invention, aerial photography by means of a pigeon photographer

Julius Neubronner (1914)
Whittlesley, 1970
Wester-Ebbinghaus, 1980
In 1980, Wester-Ebbinghaus were the first to use a rotary wing UAV for photogrammetric purposes.
If we want a scientific approach to accuracy it is the fact of being exact or correct.

WEB Resources
In 1970 Whittlesey reported on the use of a tethered balloon for archaeological documentations, which he started in 1967. The use of infrared film or multispectral cameras with low-level aerial
platforms have revealed pockets of historical vegetation or
sub-structures as indicators of past human activity in
Preparation of ground control points
Catapult ready
Measuring the GCP's with GPS for comparison
Technical Features
The distribution of vertical of errors.
The planametric distribution of errors
The accuracy they have achieved throughout the 45 check points was 95% reliably within 41mm horizontally and 68mm vertically and with a 1cm ground sample distance.

This is the most spatially accurate aerial survey data that I could currently find anywhere on the internet.
Advantages and Limitations of UAV systems
UAVs can be used in high risk situations
Can fly close to the objects(Ex: Volcanos, flood planes, earthquakes)
More spatial data then ground systems
In cloudy and drizzly weather conditions, the data acquisition with UAVs are still possible
UAV's are not burdened with the physiological limitations and economic expenses of human pilots.
Fast data acquisition
Less expensive and low operation cost
Limited payload
less stable than high-end sensors
Limited reachable altitudes
UAV images rarely supported by photogrammetric software
Signal Jamming
In the past many times peoples tried to use the baloons for photogrammetry and reconnaissance.For example Institute of Photogrammetry at the Technical University Vienna used a baloon . The results showed that by using an UAV system (Balloon) equipped with a medium format camera, it is possible to achieve high accuracy for a small size area.
Today ballons are not the favourite platform for air photogrammetry but still being used by some professionals.
Best known example of airships is Zeppelin.
These vehicles are in lighter-than-air aircraft category.
Difference between baloons and airships is ; baloons moves with wind direction but airships can be controlled in the air.
Airships are more usable for aerial photogrammetry comparing with balloons.

Model Helicopters
These vehicles are in heavier than air class.

First investigations on UAV-borne LiDAR systems in the field of robotics started at Carnegie Mellon University.The results shown in this study showed for urban and natural terrain already the potential of the spatial detail contained in the 3D point cloud.
Kites and Baloons
In 1997 several scientific investigations based on kite aerial photography were applied. A fossil forest bed was mapped in the arctic environment and an archaeological site in Russia was documented . These applications shows us the kite photogrammetry is reliable even in extreme conditions. Maybe the most important things about it; easy deployment , inexpensive equipment and even in military airspace it's not forbidden.
National Geographic Team working near the Nile for DEM(Digital Elevation Models)

Fixed wing aircraft
Turkish design UAV ANKA is also in this class. These aircrafts are classical airplanes which we all used to see in our daily lifes.

Advantages of the fixed wing are ;
Long endurance
High altitude
More capacity for other loads
The multirotor is specially designed for multi-rotor copters. The ESCs are loaded with dedicated optimized software, for extremely high performance on MultiCopters. It will increase the handling and stability of multirotor greatly. It cost 22.45 dollars.
What do we need to do our own UAV's ?
MultiWii Controller
• Flight controller for ready to fly quads and the RTF flip quad package
• Up to 8-axis motor output and 2 servo output for camera
• Small innovative 36mm x 36mm board size
• Includes affordable, small, light-weight and up-to-date sensors with USB
• Includes two sets of three pin headers soldered to the board
• It cost 19 dollars.
• Made to optimize power consumption and thrust
• Includes 4 propellers (2 ''C'' and 2 ''A''), and 8 circlips
• Specially designed for the AR.Drone 2.0
• For easy mounting, a special circlip tool is available in the ''mounting tools kit''
• It cost 12 dollars.
Full transcript