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Biology: Oncogenes & Cancer

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Julia Verna Marie Epoch

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of Biology: Oncogenes & Cancer

Cancer & Oncogenes Cancer Cancer is a term used for diseases in which cells divide rapidly and are capable of invading other tissues. Categories of Cancer Carcinoma - cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.
Sarcoma - cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.
Leukemia - cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood.
Lymphoma and myeloma - cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system.
Central nervous system cancers - cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. Fact 1 in 2 males will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime 1 in 3 females will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Radiation is used to kill the cancer cells. Special equipment sends high doses of radiation to the cancer cells or tumor. This keeps the cells from growing and making more cancer cells. Radiation can also affect normal cells near the tumor. But normal cells can repair themselves and cancer cells cannot. Surgery Surgery is the oldest form of cancer treatment. It also plays a key role in diagnosing cancer and finding out how far it has spread.

When a surgeon has to cut into the body to operate, it’s called invasive surgery. Today, operations that involve less cutting and damage to nearby organs and tissues often can be done to remove tumors while saving as much normal tissue as possible.

Surgery offers the greatest chance for cure for many types of cancer, especially those that have not spread to other parts of the body. Most people with cancer will have some type of surgery. Oncogenes Oncogenes are dominant acting genes that cause normal cells to become cancerous. Oncogenes are a mutation of proto-oncogenes (normal cellular genes that control cell division). They result from mutations that increase the expression level of a proto-oncogene. Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that stimulate cell division, decrease cell differentiation, and decelerate the process of cell termination. Oncogenes (mutated version of proto-oncogenes) increase production of these proteins increasing cell division, decreasing cell differentiation, and decelerating the process of cell termination all at a greater rate than what cells are accustomed to. Those phenotypes describe cancer cells. Although cancer cells consist of many genetic abnormalities it is possible that their growth and survival rely on a single oncogene, this is known as oncogene addiction. Through inhibiting the appropriate oncogene researchers believe they can decrease the growth rate of cancer cells, regardless of the number of mutations the cancer has undergone. For example, breast cancer is heavily dependent on the oncogene Her-2. Inhibiting this oncogene, along with combination therapy, the growth rate of this cancer will decrease. Chemotherapy is the use of medicines or drugs to treat disease.

Benefits include:
Keeping the cancer from spreading.
Slowing the cancer’s growth.
Killing cancer cells that may have spread to other parts of the body.
Relieving symptoms such as pain or blockages caused by cancer.
Cure cancer. Past 16th - 18th century used surgery to treat cancer Present There are many more methods of treatment today, the most popular are : Surgeon John Hunter, (1728−1793) suggested that some cancers might be cured by surgery. If the tumour had not invaded nearby tissue it would be possible to remove.

A century later anesthesia was used during operations. Future The study of oncogene addiction is a relatively new concept in cancer treatment. Cancer research and development should continue until we find a cure.
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