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Abrasive Water Jet Machnining

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Omar Murtaja

on 19 November 2015

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Transcript of Abrasive Water Jet Machnining

Abrasive Water Jet Machining
Presented By: Omar Nasser Murtaja
Mohammad Ahmad Mussa
Rakan Hussam Abu-zaid
Mohammed Rafik Zaki
AbdulKarim Lutfi Hassan
Karim Abd El-Motaleb Hosseiny

Difference between
* Dr. Franz in 1950’s first studied UHP water cutting
for forestry and wood cutting (Pure WJ).

Depends on:
1- Ultra-High Pressure (UHP).
2- Super Sonic Velocity (SV).

* 1979 Dr. Mohamed Hashish added abrasive

* First commercial use was in automotive industry
to cut glass in 1983.

*Soon after, adopted by aerospace industry for
cutting high-strength materials.

Concept of material Removal
What is an Orifice?
Orifice is the Primary component of the nozzle where the energy formation occurs.
Creation of Pressure
two-ways to achieve the High pressure needed to cut desired material :

1- Intensifier Pump.

2- Direct-Drive Pump.
Abrasive Water-Jet
How Abrasive Water-Jet Works
Direct Pump
(Also Known as "Mechanical Pump")
Intensifier Pump
Intensifier Principle
How does it work ?
HorsePower (HP)
Energy is Horsepower, The Higher the Horsepower, :

* The faster the Cutting rates.

* The Thicker the material you can cut.
Abrasive Water-Jet
2) Non-Conventional Manufacturing.

(Do not use sharp cutting tools)
Cut Quality
Machining Process
Latest Technology
Feed-Rate Calculations
New Technology
1- Dynamic Water Jet
Abrasive Consumption
Components & Design
Mixing Chamber
For any given set of parameters (pressure, orifice size, etc…), the cut
speed goes up and costs go down as the abrasive flow rate is increase
Eventually a Peak Performance is reached.

new technology that utilizes *SmartStream
Under Supervision of:

Dr. Mohammed Al-Gohary

* Abrasive water-jet machining is the process of material removal from a work-piece.

* This project prototype is to ( Cut Or Drill ) in materials using:
-Super Sonic Velocity.
-Ultra High Pressure.
-Sand as abrasive material.

* The water is just a medium to carry and accelerate the particles then The material
removal process it will mainly done by the abrasive material.

* The (AWJM) is used to cut shapes in Ductile and Brittle materials.

* The machine will be automated to have 2 axes travel.

* (AWJM) Shape of cut will be designed by using "GM code".

* Will be taken to use a safety shield around the cutting material.

Classification of Machining Process
Visible Chip
Chip Microscope Scale
Atomic Scale
Machining is the Material Removal Process
Advantages of AWJM
Why to choose Abrasive water jet machining ?
* Water is cheap, nontoxic, and can be easily re-circulated.

* The process provides clean and sharp cuts that are free of burrs.
(High Surface Finish)
* Able to machine both brittle and ductile materials
Easily integrated with automated system.

* Process is environmentally safe.

We can use
"Linear Feed-Rate Calculator"
Green Benefits
Water-Jet Machine can almost cut anything
Cold-cutting process that eliminates slag deformation and dross waste
Biggest Companies


Manufacturing Process
Electrical Panels
* Food (meat - vegetables)

* Metals (steel, aluminum, titanium, brass)

Used for drilling on ceramic for decorating

And used in many Industries such as (Automotive, Aerospace)
Cut quality is a function of feed-rate
Fair with Through striation
Good, Striations on bottom half of cut, Most commonly used
Very Good, Minimum Striation
Poor and rarely used
Excellent, no striations,
most accurate
Water-Jets Vs. Lasers :
Water-Jets Vs. EDM
Water-Jets Vs. Plasma
Water-Jets Vs. Other Processes
Nozzle Shield
Catcher is used to absorb the residual energy of the AWJ
1- Cleaning.
2- Drilling.
3- Paint Removal.
4- Turning.
5- Milling
Applications of
Water-Jet Machines
Cutting Materials
1- Noise Level.

2- Hazard Due to rebounding of abrasive particles.

3- Problems with the abrasive jet nozzles.

* Calculating water flow-rate, water velocity and abrasive water velocity
Concerns about Abrasive water jet machining
Taper cut problems
Cannot be used to cut very thick materials with dimensional accuracy
Maybe very costly

cut is wider at the bottom than top
depends on what to cut and quantity of cut

How to design AWJM ?
Questions to ask:
What are you going to cut?

Are you looking for clean cut?

Individual or Company productions?
Choosing our material
Why did we chose Artelon 12mm ?
What is Artelon ?
Chassis Fabrication
* Chassis dimensions (80*50 cm)

* Two travel axes (X-Y axes)

* Work area of (70 * 40 cm)
Laser cutting chassis parts
List of Components
Hard chrom length Design & calculations
Installing Hard chrom
For Y-axis
Hard chrom length Design & calculations
For X-axis
Linear Bearing Block
Stepper Motor
NEMA-23 Stepper motor
Final Prototype Chassis
* NEMA-23 stepper motor
* Water velocity
* Water flow rate
* Water Power
Computer Numerical Control
* Control function of the process.

* Prevent interference between motions.

* Manage, Command, or regulate the behavior.
Control system
Types of Control systems
Open Loop
Types of Control systems
Closed Loop
CNC USB Control
* CNC USB Controller.

* Stepper Driver.

* Stepper Motor.

* Power Supply

Prototype controlling system
Stepper Driver
* TB6560

* High output voltage: =24V

* output current 3 A

Stepper motor
* NEMA-23
* With two phases 
* Operating voltage  : 24 V
* Operating current   : 1.5 per phase
* Holding Torque     : 9 Kg.cm
* Step angle : 1.8 degrees

Power Supply
* 24 Volts

* 10 A

* Total power = 240 watt
Step per unit calculations for CNC
1 rev (motor) = 1 rev (pulley)

1 rev (motor) = 18 * 2 mm

200 * 16 = 18 * 2 mm

1600/18 = 1
* Then step/unit = 88.889
Part Program
Automated Programming
Manual part Program
Why to choose
Direct drive pump ?
Centrifugal Pumps
Classification of pumps
Positive displacement Direct Drive Pump
Centrifugal Pumps
* Most common type
* Impeller attached to shaft
* Low maintenance
* High flow rate
Lower effeciency
Different flow rate
Direct drive Pumps
1. Used for viscous liquids or liquid containing fragile
2. Lower flow rate than centrifugal with much high pressure

Creation of Pressure
two-ways to achieve the High pressure needed to cut desired material :

1- Intensifier Pump.

2- Direct-Drive Pump.
• lower power cost

• gives more pressure to the liquid being pumped

• deliver constant volume of fluid even with varying discharge pressure

• low flow application

Advantages of Direct drive pump
• Direct drive pumps are designed for tough industrial use.
• They’re compact and quiet
• Provide high power efficiency,
• Low water usage,
• Easy maintenance
• Low operating cost.
• Less energy usage,
• Faster cutting speed
• lower cost per finished part than other pump technologies.

Advantages of Ultra-High pressure
1- Depending on the material and its thickness, cutting with UHP allows water-jet cutting machine operators to increase the cutting speed by up to 50%.

2- Higher operating pressures improve the finishing product as well as the quality of the cut edge.

3- Cutting with UHP significantly reduces the consumption of abrasive.

4- The high working pressure when piercing and cutting the work-piece reduces the delimitation for composite material.
LT-590 Axial Drive Pump
* Meet requirements of high pressure

* Economical price

* Pressure used to cut light materials
Characteristics of LT-590 Axial Pump
Main safety requirements
Do not put your hands in the tank while the jet is operating.
Eye protection
Wear safety glasses to keep abrasive particles out of your eyes.
Motion control system protection
Ear protection
* Noisy operation.

* Lower noise when working submerged
* Fast Movement "up to 2.5m/min"

* May crush body parts while traveling
Abrasive material hazard
* Garnet is safe material to use (High cost)

* Never use Silica as Abrasive
Loading and unloading the work-piece
* Sharp points on slats.

* Care must be taken while loading and unloading work-piece.
Important precautions
Use ozone or hot tub chemicals to minimize bacteria in the tank
Keep guards on and covers closed.
Cost comparison
1-cost of abrasive.
2-wear parts.
Cost analysis
In this chapter, full cost analysis of abrasive water-jet machine is analyzed based on
water and power prices in the United States.
The numbers below reflect only the most costly parts in the abrasive water-jet
machining, and not the domestic costs.
cost of prototype
*pump =2800 L.E
*nozzle=800 L.E
*chassis, manufacturing and equipment=6000 L.E
*s.s slats=400 L.E
*work-peace=100 L.E

*total=10,100 L.E
* How to be safe around
abrasive water jet machine?
Beware the water-jet stream
Cutting Head
Components of (AWJ)
Cutting Head
1- UHP inlet

2- Jewel (orifice)

3- Abrasive Inlet

4- Mixing chamber

4- Focus tube

5- nozzle guard

6- Jet stream
Types of water-jet cutting head
How to Choose which type to work with?
Depends on:

- What to cut?
- Quality of cut.
- transverse speed
Nozzle shield
Nozzle Shield
Abrasive Material
* More effective operation

* Garnet is the most common type.

* Some materials are extremely prohibited to use

* Silica May not be used.

* Abrasive properties :
-Double sifted

Nozzle Design
Water-Gun Modification
Nozzle is designed using the high pressure water gun attached with the (LT-590) pump

Narrow Nozzle
Recommendations For Future Work
* Use higher pressure pump (up to 185 bar).

* Use more narrow nozzle.

* Add pump to the CNC system.

* May add abrasive feeder and vibrator.

* Add tank between pump and water-source.

* Add Z-Axes.
Full transcript