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Copy of "35 TECHNIQUES EVERY COUNSELOR SHOULD KNOW"

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Transcript of Copy of "35 TECHNIQUES EVERY COUNSELOR SHOULD KNOW"

"35 TECHNIQUES EVERY COUNSELOR SHOULD KNOW- PART I"
Section 1:
Techniques Based Upon Brief Counseling Approaches
Section 2:
Techniques Based Upon Adlerian or Psychodynamic Approaches

3. PROBLEM-FREE TALK
2. EXCEPTIONS
1. SCALING
17. SELF-TALK
18. VISUAL/GUIDED
IMAGERY
21. COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING
35. STRESS INOCULATION TRAINING
34. SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION
32. DEEP BREATHING
by: NORMA A. BALUCA, RGC
5. FLAGGING THE MINDFIELD
6. I-MESSAGES
7. ACTING AS IF
8. SPITTING IN THE SOUP
9. MUTUAL STORY-TELLING
10. PARADOXICAL INTENTION
Section 3:
Techniques Based Upon Gestalt Principles
11. EMPTY CHAIR
12. BODY MOVEMENT AND EXAGGERATION
13. ROLE
REVERSAL
Section 4:
Techniques Based Upon Social Learning Approaches
14. MODELING
15. BEHAVIORAL
REHEARSAL
16. ROLE PLAY
Section 5:
Techniques Based Upon Cognitive Approaches

19. REFRAMING
20. THOUGHT STOPPING
Section 6:
Techniques Based Upon Behavioral Approaches Using Positive Reinforcement

22. PREMACK PRINCIPLE
23. BEHAVIOR CHART
24. TOKEN ECONOMY
25. BEHAVIORAL CONTRACT
Section 7:
Techniques Based Upon Behavioral Approaches Using Punishment
26. EXTINCTION
27. TIMEOUT
28. RESPONSE COST
29. OVERCORRECTION
Section 8: Techniques Based Upon Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches
30. REBT
31.BIBLIOTHERAPY
33. PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION TRAINING
THANK YOU!

REFERENCES:

Presentation notes by: Bradley T. Erford
(May 12-14, 2014)
50th PGCA National Conference
Sofitel Westin Philippine Plaza Hotel, Manila

Erford, B., Eaves, S., Bryant, E., & Young K.
(2010) 35 Techniques Every Counselor
Should Know. New Jersey: Pearson
Education, Inc.
6. I-MESSAGES
Substitute personal pronoun

“It will not happen again”

“I will not let that happen again”

I-messages acknowledge the existence of a problem

6. I-MESSAGES
The Compound I-Messages

1. description of the problem
2. Effect the problem or behavior has on the speaker

3. Feeling experienced by the speaker
6. I-MESSAGES
Recommended structure to follow:
I feel _____ (feeling)
When you _______ (behavior)
Because ______ (consequence)

7. Acting As If
Based on Adlerian approach
Goal: 1. decreasing symptoms
2. increasing functioning
3. increasing the client's
sense of humor
4. producing a change in the
client's perspective
7. Acting As If
Counselor asks the client to act as if he had the skills to handle a difficult situation effectively

Clients use the excuse, "If only I could..."
Counselor instructs the client to act out the role as if she could do whatever she was hoping

By trying out new role, clients often learn that they cannot only carry out the part, but also become a new person in the process
8. SPITTING IN THE SOUP
A paradoxical Adlerian Technique that is use to decrease client symptoms by first determining the underlying purpose for them and then pointing this purpose out to the client
By "spitting in the soup", the counselor shows the client what he is gaining from his symptoms
Adler believed most maladaptive behavior to be a result of poor social interest, feelings of inferiority or relational issues
8. SPITTING IN THE SOUP
Although client may continue to display symptoms, they have now lost their good "taste"
The counselor identifies the motives behind the client's self-defeating behaviors and ruins the client's supposed payoff by making it unappealing
The client may still try to eat the soup (continue the behavior), but it is no longer enjoyable.
The counselor has spoiled the soup (the game) of the client
9. MUTUAL STORY-TELLING
Originated from play therapy
Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, Conn and Solomon, Richard A. Gardner
By using a story that is individually relevant to a specific person at a particular time, the lessons conveyed in the mutual storytelling technique are more likely to be received and incorporated into the listener's psychic structure
9. MUTUAL STORY-TELLING
It is important to develop a therapeutic relationship with the child before the process
First step is to elicit a fictional self-created story from the child
Broad range to create a story with beginning, middle and end, with interesting characters and some action
Story from their own imagination, heard about, or anything they saw on television or movie
9. MUTUAL STORY-TELLING
Counselor may help the child to start by saying "Once upon a time... a long time ago... far beyond the mountains... far beyond the desserts... far beyond the oceans... there lived a...
While the child tells the story, the counselor should take note to help analyze the story content as well as formulate the counselors own story variation
9. MUTUAL STORY-TELLING
When the child has finished telling a story, counselor should ask about the moral or lesson of the story,
Counselor may also ask title, character the child relates to, who the child would or would not like to be
9. MUTUAL STORY-TELLING
Gardner suggested the following guidelines:
1. Identify which figure/s represent the child, people in her life; 2 or more figures may represent parts of the same person
2. Gain an overall sense of the atmosphere and setting for the story
3. Select the most pertinent interpretation at this point in time
4. Ask yourself "What would be a healthier, more mature adaptation than the one provided by the child?"
6. I-MESSAGES
After identifying a more mature or healthier mode of adaptation, the counselor uses the child's characters, setting, and initial situation to tell a somewhat different story, usually incorporating many similar characters and actions, but offering a healthier resolution to the conflict presented in the child's story.
The goal is to provide the child with more and better alternatives to solve problems, gain insight into problems, and develop an awareness of new perspectives and possibilities
After the counselor finishes telling a story, the child is asked to identify the lesson or moral of the counselor's story.
10. PARADOXICAL INTENTION
Counselor directs the client to perform in a way that seems incompatible with the Therapeutic Goal
Encouraging clients to seek what they are avoiding, embrace what they have been fighting, replace their fears with a wish
Clients are told to exaggerate their symptoms
Types of paradoxical intentions:
symptom prescription
(symptom scheduling),
restraining
,
reframing
PARADOXICAL INTENTION
By encouraging the client to do or wish for the thing they fear most, the client may undergo a change of attitude toward the symptom
is not usually used until more conventional methods of therapy have been tried
Ex. A client who was afraid to leave her house because she was afraid that she might faint, was instructed to faint
PARADOXICAL INTENTION
8 Facets of Paradoxical Intentions
1. establish relationship
2. define the problem
3. establish goals
4. offer a plan
5. disqualify the current authority on the problem
6. give a paradoxical intention directive
7. Observe the client's response to the directive and
continue encouragement
8. Avoid taking credit for the improvement
14. MODELING
A process by which individuals learn from others; component of social learning theory developed by Bandura
Also reffered to as imitation, identification, observational learning, and vicarious learning

3 types of modeling:
overt modeling
,
symbolic modeling
, and
covert modeling

Modeling produce 3 different types of responses:
observation learning effect, inhibitory
(strengthened) or disinhibitory (weakened)
effect and response facilitation
effects

14.MODELING
In order for a client to learn a modeled behavior, 4 interrelated subprocesses must exist:
1.
attention
2. retention
3. reproduction
4. motivation

15. BEHAVIORAL REHEARSAL
Use with clients who need to become completely
aware of themselves

A form of role play in which the client is learning a
new type of behavior to use in response to certain situations, and people outside of the counseling
session

Include several key components: modeling
the behavior, receiving feedback from the
counselor, and frequently practicing the
desired behavior
15. BEHAVIORAL REHEARSAL
How to implement the behavioral rehearsal technique:

1. The client acts herself and the professional counselor plays the role of the person about whom the client has surrounding anxieties.
2. Counselor instruct the client to communicate her feelings about the anxiety-producing person or circumstance
3. The client needs to use a strong voice and repeat a feelings statement or appropriate behavior while the counselor gives feedback to the client.
4. The client continues rehearsing until the counselor
indicates the statement or behavior was
communicated effectively.
15. BEHAVIORAL REHEARSAL
For behavioral rehearsal to be effective, Bootzin (1975) suggested clients practice the following rules:
a. express emotions verbally
b. present feelings nonverbally using body language
c. contradict others when one disagrees with them
d. speak in the first person, using the word I regularly
e. agree with the counselor's praise
f. "improvise, live for the moment"

Behavioral rehearsal has been successfully used with
clients dealing with anger, frustration, anxiety,
phobias, panic attack, and depression
-Used to achieve catharsis, attitudinal change
or specific targeted behaviors
15. BEHAVIORAL REHEARSAL
Naugle & Maher, (2003) cautioned professional counselors to be careful when using this techniques with clients who:
a. cannot take responsibility for their behaviors
b. are scared of the consequences; whether or not they are real
c. will not practice the rehearsal
d. will not complete the out-of-session asignments
e. have daily crises or
f. "experience severe psychomotor agitation or
retardation"
16. ROLE PLAY
A technique used by counselors of different
theoretical orientations with clients who need to
develop a deeper understanding of, or change within, themselves
Clients are able to perform a decided upon behavior in a safe, risk-free environment

A blend of Salter's conditioned reflex therapy,
Moreno's psychodrama technique, and Kelly's fixed-
role therapy

Moreno's psychodrama process involved 3 facets:
warm-up, enactment, and reenactment
16. ROLE PLAY


4 Elements within Roles:
1. Encounter - being able to understand the perspective of another person
2. Stage - "any space with rudimentary props to increase the realism of the experience
3. Soliloquy - speech in which the client expresses his private thoughts and associated feelings
4. Doubling - leads to increase awareness on the part of the client and occurs when the professional counselor or another group member "stands behind the client during the acting out of the scene and
expresses the unexpressed thoughts or
feelings of the client"

16. ROLE PLAY
16. ROLE PLAY
22. Premack Principle

Based upon the operant conditioning theory
concept of positive reinforcement, which states that higher probability behaviors may act as reinforcers for lower probability behaviors (
individuals may do an undesired tasks if it is followed by a desired one
)

Named after
David Premack

Contradicted traditional reinforcement theories: positive, negative, neutral
22. PREMACK PRINCIPLE
How to implement the Premack principle:

1. Counselor must assess client preferred activities
2. Choose preferred activity to reinforce target behavior
3. Client should complete target behavior in order to perform the preferred activity
4. Once target behavior is completed, client may begin preferred activity
23. BEHAVIOR CHART
Target specific behaviors that are then evaluated
at set points throughout the day

Behavior is reinforced at some sort of schedules

Arise from behavioral theories that posit that behavior is shaped by reinforcement and punishment

Important components include: specifying the
behaviors to be monitored, rating the behaviors
on a set schedule, sharing the information with
people other than the rater, using the
chart to monitor intervention or
as an intervention itself




23. BEHAVIOR CHART
How to implement the behavior chart technique:
1.Define the target behaviors in positive and specific terms
2. Decide upon the frequency and type of rating system to be used
3. Design the behavior chart stating clearly both the behavior desired and when it will be monitored
4. Decide how the individual will earn consequences (positive or negative) and what these consequences
will be
3 Phases in a role play: warm-up, action and
sharing and analysis

Young (1992) provides 7 step process for counselors
to follow:
1. warm-up
2. Scene Setting
3. selecting Roles
4. Enactment
5. Sharing and feedback
6. Reenactment
7. Follow-up
Variation: Behavior Rehearsal,
mirror technique
Doyle's (1998) five steps:
1. Specify the behavior to be learned
2. Determine the context or environment
3. Start with small scenes and build to greater complexity
4. Engage in role-plays with a minimum of risk then leading to a higher risk
5. Apply the skills in real life starting with low risk situations and build to hugher risk situations as appropriate
24. Token Economy
B. F. Skinner - operant behavior theorist
- behavior is maintained by its consequences
- reinforcers are those consequences that increase the likelihood of the occurrence of a behavior

Token economies are a form of positive reinforcement in which client receive a token when they display the desired behavior. Accumulated number of tokens can be
exchange with a reinforcer.

24. TOKEN ECONOMY
STEPS
1. Several target behaviors
2. Assign points for each Target Behavior
3. Construct a reward menu
4. Develop a monitoring system
5. Agree on a reinforcement
6. I-MESSAGES
Client takes responsibility for his feelings, behaviors or attitudes

Client is required to take action in order to change the situation

Express feelings with less counterattacks and resistance


24. TOKEN ECONOMY
Example of Token Economy Technique:

Day: _____ Date: _____ Name: Charlie

School 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total
1. Stays in seat.
2. Raises hand and
waits to be called on.
3. Keeps hands to self.
4. Makes comments
relevant to the topic.
5. Follows teacher direc-
tions the first time
Home
1. keeps room tidy 0 1 2 3
2. Follows the parent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
direction the first time
Total for the
day: _____


25. BEHAVIORAL CONTRACT
Behavioral/Contingency contracts - based
upon the operant conditioning principle of
positive reinforcement (or punishment)

Written agreement between two or more individuals in which one or both persons agree to engage in a specific target behavior

involves the administration of positive (or negative) consequences contingent on the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the target behavior

Popularized by behavioral and reality
theories but now integrated into
many theories


25. BEHAVIORAL CONTRACT
Should be used when simpler and less intrusive
techniques (Praise and reinforcement) have failed

Should be individualized, target behaviors identified and phrased in a positive manner

All concerned parties meet and identify most disruptive or pervasive behavior to be addressed first (downing)

After identifying target behavior, 1) decide how the
target behavior will be measured, 2) identify
realistic behavioral expectations and goals,
3) identify the reinforcements/
punishment



30. REBT
Rational-emotive behavior therapy was
created by Albert Ellis in 1955

From rational therapy, to rational emotive therapy to REBT

The person's cognitions are the source of psychological issues

The counselor helps the client understand that feelings are not caused by event, other people or
the past but by the thoughts the person has
developed surrounding the situation




30. REBT
The counselor takes a directive approach, treatment is brief

Goals:
1. To help clients gain insight into their self-talk
2. To help clients assess their thoughts, feelings and behaviors
3. To train clients in the principles of REBT so that they will function more effectively in the future without the aid of a professional counselor

ABCDE Model - A - activating event
B - Beliefs (rational and irrational)
C - Consequence
D - Dispute
E - Evaluation
25. BEHAVIORAL CONTRACT
Components of a Behavioral Contract
1. Identify the behavior to be modified.
2. Introduce and discuss the contract idea.
3. Develop a contract and present it to all involved people.
a. The student's name
b. the specific behavior to be changed (start
small)
c. How you will know when successful
d. The reinforcement for successful performance.
e. (optional) A natural consequence for non-compliance
f. (optional) A bonus clause
g. Follow up by: time, date
h. signatures
4. Outline the follow-up procedures
5. Initiate the program
6. Record progress and evaluate outcomes
7. Modify as necessary (start mall and
expand it).



30. REBT
7- Step Process (Erford)

1. Accessing the client's self-talk
2. Determining the client's underlying belief
3. Agreeing on a more rational belief
4. Performing rational emotive imagery (REI)
5. Assigning homework
6. Positive consequence
7. Negative consequence

31. BIBLIOTHERAPY
use of books as a part of counseling process

This technique is used by counselors whose clients need to modify their ways of thinking. clients need to be able to identify with one of the characters who is experiencing a problem similar to the client issue in which clients can "learn vicariously how to solve their problems" and "release emotions, gain new directions in life, and explore new ways of interacting"

Films, videos, movies may also be used


31. BIBLIOTHERAPY
Goals:
1. Teaching constructive and positive thinking
2. Encouraging free expression of problems
3. Assisting the client in analyzing his or her attitudes and behaviors
4. Fostering the search for alternative solutions to problems
5. Allowing the client to discover that his or her problem is similar to others' problems




31. BIBLIOTHERAPY
Four stages:
1. Identify the client's needs
2. Select books that will be appropriate for the client's situation; the client reads the book outside the session, during counseling sessions, discusses the important aspect of the book with the counselor, counselor ask the client to retell the story
3. Counselor help the client point out transformations in the character's feelings,
relationships or behaviors , makes comparison between himself and character from the story
4. Follow-up - Client's insight about himself and
from identifying with the character


32. DEEP BREATHING
To calm the body, many counselors now
recommend the breathing techniques to manage stress.

1. Breathe through the nose and exhale through the nose or mouth
2. Breathe normally in between deep breathes
3. Practice the exercise lying on the back, and can sit or stand after the practice
4. One may yawn so the body can relax
5. Note that one's breathing is like before starting
the exercise
33. PMRT
A person learns to relax striated muscles
through this process

PMRT is commonly used to manage stress

Benefits: positive and beneficial immune system responses, greater resistance to psychosocial stressors, a more internal locus of control, positive mental health, and greater physical health
Procedure:
The counselor makes sure the space is free from
distraction where client can lie comfortably with
eyes closed. Client wears loose clothing, and
takes off shoes before the session. PMRT
sessions last for 30 minutes for six or seven
sessions.

33. PMRT
The Ten Muscle Groups are:
1. Right arm
2. Left arm
3. right leg
4. left leg
5. Abdomen and buttocks
6. Lower back and shoulders, chest
7. Neck
8. Lower face (jaw, lips and tonque)
9. Upper face (eyes, cheeks and nose)
10. forehead
34. SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION
A procedure in which clients repeatedly
recall, imagine or experience anxiety-provoking
events and then use relaxation techniques to suppress the anxiety caused by the event.

Examples of phobias for which systematic desensitization can be used include a fear of an animal or insect (e.g., dog, bee, spider), heights, or closed spaces (e.g., elevator)

can be conducted either covertly, through
visualization in the counselor's office, or
in vivo
,
translated as "real life"exposure to the fear
producing stimulus.


34. SYSTEMATIC DESENZITIZATION
3 General Components:
1. The client is taught a relaxation technique
(PMRT) in which she needs to become proficient.
2. An anxiety hierarchy scale is created.
3. "Counterposing relaxation and anxiety-provoking stimuli" or applying relaxation to the hierarchy to accomplish desensitization

35. Stress Inoculation Training

Stress inoculation training technique (SIT) -
developed by Donald Michenbaum is based on the idea that helping clients cope with mild stressors will allow them to develop a tolerance for more severe forms of distress

Combines elements of socratic and didactic teaching, client self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, problem
solving, relaxation training, behavior rehearsal, and
environmental change

Composed of general principles and clinical
procedures must be tailored to fit
individual client
35. SRESS INOCULATION TRAINING
Can be conducted with individuals, couples,
small groups or large groups

consist of 8 to 15 sessions, plus booster or follow-up for between 3 and 12 months

3 Phases:
1. Conceptualization -teaches client the nature of stress and teh role of client; identify presenting problem and one global stressor, client develop goal and self-monitor, counselor use self-report and help client develop a re-conceptualization of distress
2. Skill acquisition and rehearsal - client learn behavioral
and cognitive coping techniques to use in stressful
situations (collecting info, planning, cognitive restructuring of negative self-talk, problem solving, etc.)

35. SRESS INOCULATION TRAINING
3 Phases:
3. application and follow-through - transfer of
skills from therapeutic setting to the real world
role plays, simulation, imagery and graduated in vivo practice); skills are integrated into the external world though graded homework assignment; to prevent relapses, client and professional counselor identify high-risk situations, anticipate stressful reactions, and rehearse coping responses; includes follow-up and booster session

SIT is useful in issues such as speech anxiety, test
anxiety, phobias, anger, assertion training,
social incompetence, depression,
and social withdrawal in children.
"We cannot hold a torch to light another's path, without brightening our own."--Ben Sweetland
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