Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Poverty and violence in the Niger delta

Examine the relative importance of poverty as a factor in the onset of large scale violence in a conflict affected country of your choice. Using violence in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria
by

Daniel Sweeney

on 3 December 2012

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Poverty and violence in the Niger delta

Violence in the Niger Delta Poverty Greed and grievance The Resource Curse History and Background “Poverty” is used in two main senses: in its first, common usage in development, it is a broad, blanket word used to refer to the whole spectrum of deprivation and ill-being; in its second usage, poverty has a narrow technical definition for purposes of measurement and comparison.
(Beck, T. 1994)
Oil accumulation politics driven by “greed” of political elites and the elites of oil industry
Grievance over distribution of oil revenues
Ethnic grievance in relation to political marginalization
Environmental degradation The ‘resource curse’ refers to the paradox where countries with an abundance of natural resources specifically in the likes of diamond, oil, timber experience reverse trend in the economy. Instead of expected increase in wealth, informs a down turn in the country’s economy. This includes introducing the in famous economic term ‘Dutch disease’ (Collier, 2008, Onyeakwu, 2007) Gained independence from British rule in 1960, established as a Federal Republic in 1963 with elections in 1965

Civil war with 'Biafra region' (south-eastern) from 1967-70. Estimates between 1-3 million dead

Successive changes between military and civilian rule. Examine the relative importance of poverty as a factor in the onset of large scale violence in a conflict affected country of your choice. The Niger Delta Why the Niger Delta? 4 'toxic ingredients'
- greed
- sacrilege
- oppression
- a dead hero



(Collier, 2007) Oil accumulation politics driven by “greed” of the government and the elites of the oil industry rent-seeking culture and the greed-driven politics have played a big role in setting up a condition in which a conflict is more likely to occur Grievance over distribution of oil revenues The federal government appropriates remains a greater percentage of which are distributed to the composite states and units of the federation.

The oil-baring states argue for a much larger share of the oil resources. Ethnic grievance in relation to political marginalization Historically, the Nigerian federal state and the considerably nationalized oil sector have been dominated by a loose coalition of ethnic majority elites at the expense of the greater part of the ethnic minorities, including those of the oil-baring Niger Delta region. (Omeje, 2006)

"a significant level of 'horizontal inequality' between the ethnic majority and the poor minority (Stewart, 2008) Grievance brought by environmental degradation "more than 60% of the people in the region depend on the natural environment for their livelihood" (UNDP, 2006)

Pollution and environmental damage, therefore, pose not only significant risks to human rights but also result in serious intrinsic grievance. Omeje, K, "Oil conflict and Accumulation Politics in Nigeria, in Dabelko, G., Environmental Change and Security Program Report, vol 12, pp44-49, 2007
Stewart, F, "Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies" 2008
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), "Niger Delta Human Development Report" 2006, p74 Material Deprivation The inhabitants in the region historically have been farmers and fishermen, but the discovery and exploration of oil as noted by the UNDP (2006,76) report that, "oil spills has led to the contamination of water resources, the destruction of farmland, and the dispersion of toxic materials" causing a disruption to the hitherto main stay of livelihood for these communities. Education and Health The Niger Delta is characterized by "insufficient access to health care, potable drinking water, and electric power". Unfortunately also, education levels are below the national average and are particularly low for women. While 76% of Nigerian children attend primary school, this level drops to 30% in some parts of the Niger Delta
(World Bank, 1995) Vulnerability and exposure to risk The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP, 1999) provided an overview of environmental conditions, resources and conflict.  It gave the proposition that a growing trend in international and intra-national conflict appears to be linked to the deteriorating environmental conditions and resources
(Onduku, A. 2001) Voiceless and Powerless The struggle against oil spillage, marginalization and underdevelopment of the region, was especially heightened by the killings of Isaac Boro, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Professor Claude Ake, the "Ogoni 8" and countless numbers of promising youth activists during military dictatorships. Amnesty International (2009) Oil Companies have brought Poverty and Pollution to Niger Delta

Beck, T. (1994) Cited in Chambers, R. (1995) Environment and Urbanization. Poverty and Livelihoods: Whose Reality Counts? 7(173)

Chambers, R. (1995) Environment and Urbanization. Poverty and Livelihoods: Whose Reality Counts? 7(173)

Ekpenyong, O., et al (2010) Poverty: A Potential Conflict Escalator in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Bangledesh e-Journal of Sociology. 7(1) 2010

Ofem, N. and AJayi, A. (2008) Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 6(1&2): Effects of Youth Empowerment Strategies on Conflict Resolutions in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria: Evidence from Cross River State

Okoh, R. and Egbon, P. (1999) Fiscal Federalism and Revenue Allocation. The Poverty of the Niger-Delta in Aigbokhan B.(eds): Fiscal federalism and Nigeria’s Economic Development Selected Papers of the 1999. Annual Conference of the Nigerian Economic Society. NES, Ibadan

Omotola, SJ. (2010). "Liberation Movements" and Rising Violence in the Niger Delta: The New Contentious Site of Oil and Environmental Politics. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(1), 36-54

Onduku, A. (2001) Environmental Conflicts: A Case of the Niger Delta.
A presentation at the One World Fortnight Programme Organised By the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, United Kingdom 22nd November 2001

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 2006) Niger Delta Human Development Report

World Bank. 2000. World Development Report 2000/2001 - Attacking Poverty. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. 2001) •The ‘Dutch disease’ refers to a situation where income generated from the natural resource export, elevates value of the local currency over other currencies and incapacitates other cash crops even where they have demonstrated capacity to generate substantial income.
Nigeria has over 50 years of substantial oil production yet failed to produce sustainable socio-economic development to its citizenry.
•This obnoxious reality, is no doubt favoured by scholars as a classic example of the 'resource curse evidenced in the works of Collier/Hoeffler 2001; Le Billon 2001; Auty 1993; Sachs/Warner 2001, Stewart, 2008. Emphasised as contributory indicator that fuelled the violence in the Niger Delta. (Mahler, 2010) Factors that cause the Dutch disease in regard to the Nigeria situation, leading to the Niger Delta conflict:
•Decline in the competitiveness of other economic sectors
•Under-investment in relevant factors which have potential to aid development
•Mismanagement of revenues gained from the natural resources sector.
(Onyeakwu, 2007) Nigeria boasted a great agricultural export from Cocoa (Ajao, 2010) and groundnut (Daily Trust, 2010) in the 60s & 70s.
Evident in the Kano ground nut pyramids of blessed memory-in the North and Cocoa in the West regions of Nigeria.
Discovery of the oil located in the Southern region created a drastic shift in focus and altered navigation of the Nigeria economic journey.
The once priced agricultural exports lost value to the ‘new bride’, oil.
Which unlike the other cash crops associated with regions, was given a national identity. An issue also heavily contested by the Niger-Deltans.
•In line with this national status and to ensure equity of access by ‘ALL’ Nigerians’, refineries were constructed in all the state capitals and pipelines to transport the oil from source. (Ukoha, 2008) The frustration paved a fertile ground for conflict.
•The Niger-Delta people who became conscious as being lead anchor of the Nigerian economy yet most consumed in this frustration, intensified their reaction (Ukiwo, 2011).
•This in addition to other frustrations of environmental degradation, poverty in the midst of wealth and other characteristics in the ‘greed and grievance’ theory as presented by my other colleagues
•Informed the demand for full ownership of the oil proceeds by Niger-Deltans,
•In a proposed formula to have full control of the ‘rent’ and export proceeds then pay royalties to the Nigerian government.
•A move popularly termed ‘Resource Control’(Best, 2006) and desperately contested by the Nigerian state which maintains preaching the ‘unity of purpose’ Nigeria Conclusions Annual Reports (2001), Department of Petroleum Resources, Abuju

Chindah, A. C & Braide, S.A (2000) “The Impact of oil spills on the Ecology and Economy of the Niger Delta’

Collier, P., (2007), The Bottom Billion: why the poorest countries are failing and what can be done about it, Oxford University Press

Dung, E,J., Bombom, L,S., & Tano, D. A. (2008). The effects of gas flaring on crops in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, GeoJournal, 73(4), 297-305

Financial Times, Shell faces Saro-Wiwa death claim, 4/4/2009

Ishisone, M. (2004). Gas flaring in the Niger Delta: The potential benefits
of its reduction on the local economy and environment

Okoh, E., Ojogwu.C, N., & Aviomoh E, E. U. (2009). The impact of oil spillage on agricultural production among adult farmers in the niger delta region of Nigeria

World Bank. (2004). Global gas flaring initiative: Report No.
4: A Voluntary standard for global gas flaring and venting
reduction

World Bank. (2007). A twelve year record of national and
global gas flaring volumes estimated using satellite data.
Final Report "It is like paradise and hell. They have everything. We have nothing... If we protest, they send soldiers."
Eghare W.O. Ojhogar, chief of the Ugborodo community

"I was told to kneel down on the beach with some of the chiefs and their hands were tied behind their backs. Then the soldiers started beating them with horsewhips, and told us to eat sand."
Cadbury George Omieh, Igno XXI, Amanyanabo (King) of Odioma. Nigeria: New evidence of human rights violations in oil-rich Niger Delta – Amnesty International 2005 Republic of Biafra The 70s Oil Boom ‘intoxicated’ Nigeria. It replaced rational economic principles, whereby instead of investing the huge proceeds accrued from the oil including export and ‘rent’,
•Borrowed heavily while embarking on outrageous expenditure in wasteful projects (Collier, 2008)
•Funding and hosting Festival of African Culture (FESTAC 77) is an empirical example (Ukoha, 2008) However, the roller coaster ride came to an abrupt end with the 1986 world oil price crash which:
Ushered a catastrophic effect most absorbed by the low income class while

The lending banks swung in with merciless repayment demands.

In a desperate move, Nigeria introduced the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) as an economic reform strategy which induced misery in the living standards of the citizenry. (Collier, 2008) ”‘I call petroleum the devil’s excrement. It brings trouble…waste, corruption, consumption, our public services fall apart, and debt - a debt we shall have for years…”
Juan Perez Pablo Alfonso, the Co-Founder of OPEC.

(Sala-I-Martin, X & Subramanian, A, 2003) Evidently, the ‘resource curse’ produced a backlash on Nigerian scenario in:
•The social (Poverty)
•Economic (financial instability)
•Political (scramble to access ‘rentier space’, coups) and•Corruption evident in activities of the minority ‘kleptocratic elites’ (Okonjo-Iweala, 2012).

Exposure to the huge influx of proceeds from ‘rent’ introduced the ‘rentier space scramble’, explained as access to gain and control the oil wealth (revenue).

All these create fertile environment for high level of corruption, mismanagement, political instability, conflict and stagnate economy (Collier, 2008, De Soysa, 2000, Onyeukwu, A.J, 2007, Ross, 2006, Stewart, 2010). These negative outcomes, all evident in the Nigeria state scenario therefore indicate ‘resource curse’ as one of the causal factors in addition to other afore mentioned factors in initiating the Niger-Delta crises Best, E.G., 2006., Conflict Analysis. In Best, G. (Ed.), Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Limited, pp.61-78

Collier, P., 2008. Bottom Billion. Oxford University Press Inc

Daily Trust. 2010., West Africa: Groundnut Pyramids - From Kano to Bauchi - 2 November, 2010 http://allafrica.com/stories/201011020835.html/Assessed on 2 November, 2012.

De Soysa, 2000., The Resource Curse: Are Civil Wars Driven by Rapacity or Paucity in Berdal, M. & Malone, D. (eds.) Greed & Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. London: Lynne Reinner Publishers Inc.

Mähler, A, 2010., Nigeria: A Prime Example of the Resource Curse?: Revisiting the Oil-Violence Link in the Niger Delta in GIGA Research Programme: Violence and Security. (eds) no 120, Hamburg, GIGA Working Papers

Obi, C & Rustaard, S, A, 2011; Oil and insurgency in the Niger Delta: Managing the complex politics of petro violence, Zed Books, London.

Onyeukwu, A.J, 2007: Resource Curse in Nigeria: Perception and challenges; International Policy Fellowship Program, Open Society Institute, Hungary

Ross, M., 2006; A Closer Look at Oil, Diamond, and Civil War: Annual reviews of political science no 9, pp. 265-3000

Sala-i-Martin, X & Subramanian, A., 2003; Addressing the Natural Resource Curse: An Illustration from Nigeria, New York.

Stewart, F., 2008. Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding group violence in multiethnic societies. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Ukiwo, U., 2011; in Obi, C & Rustaard, S, A (eds) Oil and insurgency in the Niger Delta: Managing the complex politics of petro violence, Zed Books, London. Categories of Poverty Material Deprivation, Income Poverty (Economic)
Low levels of Education and Health – (Human Poverty)
Vulnerability and exposure to risks, (Protective)
Voiceless and powerless (Political)

World Bank, 2001 In recent years, the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been characterized by escalating conflicts, which several scholars have attributed to widespread absolute poverty that is prevalent in the region
(Ekpenyong O., et al 2010. pp. 34) "harvest of failed policies typified by absence of basic infrastructures like roads, electricity, health services, capacity deficiencies arising from a failing school system, army of unemployed and unemployable youths, environmental degradation, etc. The cumulative effects of these are anger in the land and easy pre-disposition of the population, especially the youths, to violence"

President Olusegun Obasanjo Poverty is not a mono-causal factor in large-scale violence in the Niger Delta. The inequalities created by the oil industry and state system are responsible for the violent reaction of the population.

Therefore, while poverty is a significant factor in the onset of violence it requires the interplay of other variables to erupt the violence. Nana Zakama, Yu Ito, Denen Kpojime, Danny Sweeney Amnesty International (2009) Oil Companies have brought Poverty and Pollution to Niger Delta
Annual Reports (2001), Department of Petroleum Resources, Abuju
Beck, T. (1994) Cited in Chambers, R. (1995) Environment and Urbanization. Poverty and Livelihoods: Whose Reality Counts? 7(173)
Best, E.G., 2006., Conflict Analysis. In Best, G. (Ed.), Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Limited, pp.61-78
Chambers, R. (1995) Environment and Urbanization. Poverty and Livelihoods: Whose Reality Counts? 7(173)
Chindah, A. C & Braide, S.A (2000) “The Impact of oil spills on the Ecology and Economy of the Niger Delta’
Collier, P., (2007), The Bottom Billion: why the poorest countries are failing and what can be done about it, Oxford University Press
Daily Trust. 2010., West Africa: Groundnut Pyramids - From Kano to Bauchi - 2 November, 2010
De Soysa, 2000., The Resource Curse: Are Civil Wars Driven by Rapacity or Paucity in Berdal, M. & Malone, D. (eds.) Greed & Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. London: Lynne Reinner Publishers Inc.
Dung, E,J., Bombom, L,S., & Tano, D. A. (2008). The effects of gas flaring on crops in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, GeoJournal, 73(4), 297-305 Ekpenyong, O., et al (2010) Poverty: A Potential Conflict Escalator in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Bangledesh e-Journal of Sociology. 7(1) 2010
Financial Times, Shell faces Saro-Wiwa death claim, 4/4/2009
Ishisone, M. (2004). Gas flaring in the Niger Delta: The potential benefits of its reduction on the local economy and environment
Mähler, A, 2010., Nigeria: A Prime Example of the Resource Curse?: Revisiting the Oil-Violence Link in the Niger Delta in GIGA Research Programme: Violence and Security. (eds) no 120, Hamburg, GIGA Working Papers
Obi, C & Rustaard, S, A, 2011; Oil and insurgency in the Niger Delta: Managing the complex politics of petro violence, Zed Books, London.
Ofem, N. and AJayi, A. (2008) Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 6(1&2): Effects of Youth Empowerment Strategies on Conflict Resolutions in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria: Evidence from Cross River State
Okoh, E., Ojogwu.C, N., & Aviomoh E, E. U. (2009). The impact of oil spillage on agricultural production among adult farmers in the niger delta region of Nigeria
Okoh, R. and Egbon, P. (1999) Fiscal Federalism and Revenue Allocation. The Poverty of the Niger-Delta in Aigbokhan B.(eds): Fiscal federalism and Nigeria’s Economic Development Selected Papers of the 1999. Annual Conference of the Nigerian Economic Society. NES, Ibadan
Omeje, K, "Oil conflict and Accumulation Politics in Nigeria, in Dabelko, G., Environmental Change and Security Program Report, vol 12, pp44-49, 2007 Omotola, SJ. (2010). "Liberation Movements" and Rising Violence in the Niger Delta: The New Contentious Site of Oil and Environmental Politics. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(1), 36-54
Onduku, A. (2001) Environmental Conflicts: A Case of the Niger Delta. A presentation at the One World Fortnight Programme Organised By the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, United Kingdom 22nd November 2001
Onyeukwu, A.J, 2007: Resource Curse in Nigeria: Perception and challenges; International Policy Fellowship Program, Open Society Institute, Hungary
Ross, M., 2006; A Closer Look at Oil, Diamond, and Civil War: Annual reviews of political science no 9, pp. 265-3000
Sala-i-Martin, X & Subramanian, A., 2003; Addressing the Natural Resource Curse: An Illustration from Nigeria, New York.
Stewart, F., 2008. Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding group violence in multiethnic societies. Palgrave Macmillan, New York
Ukiwo, U., 2011; in Obi, C & Rustaard, S, A (eds) Oil and insurgency in the Niger Delta: Managing the complex politics of petro violence, Zed Books, London.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 2006) Niger Delta Human Development Report
World Bank. 2000. World Development Report 2000/2001 - Attacking Poverty. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. 2001)
World Bank. (2004). Global gas flaring initiative: Report No.4: A Voluntary standard for global gas flaring and venting reduction
World Bank. (2007). A twelve year record of national and global gas flaring volumes estimated using satellite data. Final Report
Full transcript