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Andrew Olson

on 29 August 2014

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Transcript of Clauses

Adverb Clauses
An adverb clause, just like an adverb, modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Most commonly, adverb clauses modify verbs and answer questions about them: When? Where? Why? How?

, words that signal a structural subordination, are generally what make the adverb clause dependent to the rest of the sentence.

Adverb Clauses 2
the football game
is a verb, and
modifies or changes the meaning of the verb left, answering when (we)
. Used here,
is a standard adverb.

the football game
after the team scored in the third quarter
First notice that "We left the football game" could stand as a complete sentence, but "after...quarter" cannot.
is our subordinating conjunction, with
working as the complete subordinate adverb clause
The Subordinate Clause
Clauses are a group of words that become the building blocks of sentences.

Subordinate or Dependent Clauses function as a part of speech within the sentence, but cannot stand as a complete sentence themselves.

There are three common subordinate clause types: Adverb clause, Adjective clause, and Noun clause.
Adjective Clauses 2
Sometimes, a more common subordinator, such as when or where, will be used in place of a relative pronoun. But if it modifies a noun, it is an adjective clause.
The students recalled the


when they learned about clauses
Here, the clause modifies the noun,

not the verb, recalled. Thus it is an adjective clause.

The relative can also be unexpressed, or absent, from the sentence. Here, the unexpressed relative appears in brackets.
Our instructor will be satisfied only if we read both


(that) she assigned to us
Adjective Clauses
An adjective clause, just like an adjective, modifies a noun or pronoun.

An adjective clause usually follows the word it modifies.

Almost all of the adjective clauses you'll use utilize
relative pronouns
: who, whose, whom, which or that.

The relative pronoun, substituted for a noun, relates directly to the noun being modified.
This is an important

that will help your writing
is a noun,
is the relative pronoun beginning the adjective clause that relates to the noun.
Adverb Clauses 3
Common subordinating adverb conjunctions:
after, although, as, because, before, even though, even if, if, once, since, than, that, though, unless, until, when, where, whereas, while
adverb clauses
commonly modify the
and usually answer When? Where? Why? or How? about that verb.
Don't forget they also modify adjectives and adverbs




while Mr. O is lecturing
. (When)

where the sidewalk ended
. (Where)


the class
because she didn't study
. (Why)
The student

as if the class was boring him
. (How)
Adverb Clauses 4
Adverb clauses can be separated from what they modify and placed anywhere in the sentence. If the clause is at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence, it is usually set off with a comma or commas.

When the bell rang, no one left class

He will not talk unless we drop all his charges

You should lead the investigation as you are the senior officer.

The testimony, although well intentioned, failed to sway the jury
Adjective Clauses 3
Adjective clauses have two designations within a sentence, depending on their use, and are classified as
Restrictive adjective clauses provide necessary identification of the noun it modifies.

whose paper was late

asked for a reprieve.

Nonrestrictive clauses provide additional information that is not necessary to identify the noun it modifies. These clauses require commas.

whose paper was late

asked for a reprieve.

Adjective Clauses 4
Amber has a new boyfriend who plays football.

She is a young student whose writing I admire.

Here is the blu-ray that I borrowed yesterday.

The restaurant hired Chef Ramsey, whom the owner had known in London.

He wants to move to the Bahamas, where cold weather is nonexistent.

Noun clauses can serve as subjects, objects, or appositives within sentences. They are the trickiest clauses to find.

Delayed noun clauses are found when the word "it" appears in the common subject position with the actual subject following the verb within the noun clause.
It is unfortunate
that you were late

An appositive is a noun unit that replaces/renames the noun that generally appears immediately before it. An appositive noun clause has the added subordinator.
who is a dedicated student
, took notes religiously.

Noun Clauses
Noun Clauses 2
Noun clauses often become object units within the sentence in addition to standing as subjects (or subject complements) and appositives.



is very convincing. (standard subject)
What he wrote us

is very convincing. (noun clause as subject)

Mr. O announced

his retirement
. (standard direct object w/adj.)
Mr. O announced

that he would retire
. (noun clause as d.o.)

Give the test to the

. (standard object of preposition)
Give the test to

whoever proctors the test
. (noun clause o.p.)
Noun Clauses 3
Noun clauses are easily confused with adjective clauses, especially when noun clauses are appositive units. Remember that adjective clauses modify a noun, and appositive noun clauses replace/rename the noun.

The news

that you brought us

is welcome.
(Adj. clause that modifies the noun news)

The news

that Jill has returned home

is welcome.
(Noun clause appositive that renames news)
Confusing? Try switching "which" with "that". The trick doesn't work with noun clauses.
Noun Clauses 4
You can't deny the fact that I have killer looks.

Your contention that Mr. O just exaggerated has merit.

Why John failed composition still puzzles Mr. O.

Becca now wonders if her answer was the correct one.

I know you will eventually understand.

This is what Mr. O told us.
Independent Clause
A clause is very similar to a phrase. However, unlike a phrase, a clause contains a subject and its verb.

An independent clause (sometimes called main clause) can stand by itself as a sentence. That is, an independent clause contains everything it needs to function as a proper sentence if punctuated like one.

When I woke up late for class,
I got dressed before deciding it wasn't worth going

The italicized clause is independent; it could stand as a sentence.
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