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Cooking in High Altitudes
Transcript of Cooking in High Altitudes
(and how it relates to gas laws)
Why does it matter?
When cooking in higher altitudes, the air pressure is reduced so temperature (or time) must be changed for food to be prepared and cooked properly and thoroughly.
When you get to higher altitudes, either increase the temperature you cook at or wait the longer period of time to allow food to cook.
Be safe with how high of an altitude you travel up to.
Most boxes or packaged foods have special instructions for cooking in higher altitudes so follow them.
The two main gas laws applied to this topic are:
Boyle's Law and,
Combined Gas Law.
Information on the Atmosphere
On Earth: 1cm^3 = 10^19 molecules
Man-made vacuum: 1cm^3 = 100 molecules
In between our planets: 1cm^3 = 10 molecules
In between our stars: 1cm^3 = 1 molecule
In between our galaxies: 1m^3 = 1 molecule
There is a never a space with no molecules, no atmosphere, no temperature, no volume, no anything... there is never a nothing.
But because of the extremes of space, we can only function (and cook) until a certain point in our atmosphere known as Armstrong's Limit.
Betty Crocker's Tips for Baking:
1. Air pressure is lower, so foods take longer to bake. Temperatures and/or bake times may need to be increased.
2. Liquids evaporate faster, so amounts of flour, sugar and liquids may need to be changed to prevent batter that is too moist, dry or gummy.
3. Gases expand more, so doughs rise faster. Leavening agents (baking soda and baking powder) may need to be decreased. Doughs may need shorter rising times and may need to be “punched down” (deflated) twice during the rising process.
Betty Crocker's Tips for Cooking:
1. Air pressure is lower, so foods take longer to cook. Temperatures and/or cook times may need to be increased.
2. Water boils at a lower temperature, so foods prepared with water (such as pastas and soups) may take longer to cook. Temperatures and cook times may need to be increased.
Combined Gas Laws
Formula: P1 V1 T2 = P2 V2 T1
If we are to cook something at a lower pressure, the temperature increase, and the volume of the air (since it increases as pressure decreases) and use the same variables at sea level (or close to the level where we live)- plugging the appropriate variables into both sides would be equivalent resulting in properly, thoroughly cooked food.
Formula: P1 V1 = P2 V2
If we were to cook the same food at the same temperature in two different altitudes, we would be able to figure that the volumes of the air are different and this would cause the food at the higher altitude to take longer to cook.
Elevation: 19,000m (11.806 miles)
Since we know that at higher altitudes, liquids boil at lower temperatures- Armstrong's limit is the point where blood boils at body temperature.
"Cooking at Altitude." Cooking at Altitude. Kiwi Web, n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2016. <http://www.chemistry.co.nz/cooking_altitudes.htm>.
Crocker, Betty. "Baking and Cooking at High Altitudes." Bettycrocker.com. General Mills, n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2016. <http://www.bettycrocker.com/how-to/tipslibrary/baking-tips/baking-cooking-high-altitudes>.
Smith, C. W. "Combined Gas Law and Altitude." Combined Gas Law and Altitude (2014): 1-5. Web. 27 Feb. 2016. <http://www.phs.d211.org/science/smithcw/Chemistry%20332/Quarter%204%20Unit%201/5%20Combined%20Gas%20Law.pdf>.
VSauce. "(untitled)." YouTube. YouTube, 15 Nov. 2011. Web. 27 Feb. 2016. <https://www.you tube.com/watch?v=K93zcgFsynk>.