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Industrial and Social Revolution

7th grade World Studies

Andrew Lewis

on 16 August 2018

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Transcript of Industrial and Social Revolution

Chapter 13
Industrial and Social Revolution

Laying the Foundation for Industry
Society remained focused on agriculture for centuries and industry remained fairly primitive during that time
Modern industry and improved farming techniques developed in the 18th century in Great Britain and changed Europe for good
Agricultural Revolution
Development of farming methods increased food supply – crop rotation, fertilization, and improved farming tools
Crop rotation
– planting crops in a different field each season so that the soil is able to recover
Transition to the City
Increased food supply allows for the growth of the British population
From 6.5 million in 1750 to 9 million in 1800
Land previously used for crops was now used for sheep herding
Wool became a cash crop for Great Britain
Lack of job opportunities led families to develop
cottage industries
Wool spun and merged on a spinning wheel to make cloth
Greater demand for crops led landowners to enclose land to increase productivity
Many poor farmers could no longer support their families, moved to the cities
Inventors and their Machines
Jethro Tull – Seed drill
Designed to place seeds in rows, evenly distributed seeds
Iron plow – turned soil over more easily, allows farmers to farm previously unusable land
Andrew Meikle – Threshing machine
Separated the husk of wheat from the actual grain more quickly
Eli Whitney – Cotton gin
Removed seeds and thistles from cotton
Cyrus McCormick – Horse-drawn reaping machine
Enabled farmers to cut wheat much more quickly
John Fowler
– developed the first
steam tractor
One of the first known self-propelled steam engine
Replaced teams of horses and oxen, helped lower cost of farming
All of these inventions allowed raw materials to be processed at a higher rate and reduced the number of workers needed
Encouraged manufacturers to produce manufactured goods faster
Industrial Revolution
– 18th and 19th centuries
The result of inventions that influenced industry
Transition to the Factory
Development of larger weaving machines led industry to move to
Animal and water-powered factories were inefficient and sometimes unreliable
Inventors and their Machines
James Watt – steam engine
Did not invent, made major improvements to its efficiency
Steam engine becomes a reliable source of power
John Kay – flying shuttle
Added to weaving machines to weave cotton into cloth much quicker
Speed helped build demand for cotton
James Hargreaves – spinning jenny
Spun strands of cotton into threads
Inventors built machines to make cloth more quickly
Iron and steel production is improved
Improvements in one industry led to improvements in others
Connections between Industrial and Commercial Relations
Men who developed businesses and sold inventions
Richard Arkwright
Very famous entrepreneur, received
to protect his inventions
Patent – government protection that prevents others from copying his inventions
Also developed contacts with banks and wealthy individuals to secure capital to produce his inventions
Capital – money
Entrepreneurs bought supplies, built the factories, and paid workers to produce the product
Investors received a share of the profits/losses made by the entrepreneurs
Factors that Encouraged the Rise of Industry
Growing population provided the work force
Abundant raw materials
Stable government
Patents provided legal protection for inventors
British exported their inventions to other European countries and North America
British investors invested in budding industries in these countries
Great preacher of the period
Traveled through the country on horseback, preached over 42,000 sermons
Saw thousands of conversions; encouraged prison and work reforms
Inspectors checked mills and enforced cooperation
Government Reform
1830’s and 40’s – Parliament begins to pass laws to protect workers
Movements for Social Reform
Coal burning created air pollution
Movements for Social Reform
Short term
Unemployment for skilled craftsmen, dangerous factory conditions, high hours and low wages, stressful family situations, disease.
Effect on Society
Paris – suffered under riots over poor working conditions
France, Hungary, Germany, and Russia’s work forces resorted to armed resistance to mistreatment
Government oppression/inaction continued; conditions failed to improve
Ten Hour Bill
Prevented women and boys from working 10 hour days
Mill owners avoided responsibility by dismissing child workers
Forced children to work in more dangerous mills or survive on the street
Union – organization of workers united to achieve common goals
Movements for Social Reform
Low factory wages forced multiple family members to find jobs
Hours were similar to that of work on the farm, different tasks
Factory workers faced dangerous working conditions and health problems
Gradually provided greater financial security for their family and better opportunities
Family Life
Class distinctions began to break down and reform
Middle class – upper and lower middle class
Mobility between the classes increased greatly
Lower class families gain wealth; seek to better the chances of their children
Libraries and schools built to make learning more available
Effect on Society
As the population increased and industry grew, towns became cities
Housing, roads, and sanitation lagged behind and failed to keep up with the growth
Growth of Cities
Expansion of Industry and Rise of Social Reform
Long term
Increase in wealth, increase of the middle class, wages gradually increased, cheaper more available goods
Many factories took advantage of the workers
Machines were built for production rather than safety
Dirty and dangerous working conditions
Injured or sick workers were simply replaced
Apartments were crowded and built quickly
Lacked proper sanitation
Mills and factories dumped waste into rivers/lakes; polluted the water supply
Growth of Unions
England’s Struggle
1833 Factory Act
Mines Act of 1842
Prevented women and boys from working in the mines
Religious Transformation
John Wesley
Both preachers presented the need for Christ to a needy population
Resulted in positive changes in British society
Religious Transformation
Preached throughout Britain, Wales, and the American colonies
Famous for his powerful voice; preached to 20,000+ at a time
George Whitefield
The Struggle in Other European Countries
Increasing number of workers, increasing pay, better working conditions
Placed limits on child labor
Children under 9 could not work in textile mills
Children (9-13) could not work more than 8 hours a day
Children required to go to school three hours a day
Abolished slavery during the Revolution, revived by Napoleon
Slaves in French-owned Haiti revolt and become independence
Abolitionists purchase land in West Africa for freed slaves
Royal navy intercepted slave ships
Slavery officially ended in 1833 a month after Wilberforce passed away
Young member of Parliament; became a Christian while in office
Encouraged to remain in office and improve conditions in the country
Led the effort to abolish slavery in the British Empire
Amazing Grace
Quakers – first religious group to openly combat slavery
John Wesley – promoted the abolition of slavery
Slavery in Africa became a very successful and profitable industry during the Age of Exploration
Traders from across Europe purchased slaves and shipped them across the globe
Over time, Europeans realized the brutal realities of the slave trade
– first country to seek an end to slavery
– division on the subject delayed a response
Written by former slave ship captain
John Newton
; became a pastor
Spoke out against slavery; helped encourage William Wilberforce
William Wilberforce
Passes a bill to end the slave trade in Britain
Does not officially end the slave trade, but laid a foundation for the abolition of slavery
Continued to struggle for another 25 years
Topic of abolition brought up during the mid to late 1700’s
American independence brought questions of equality
1808 – Congress banned the importation of slaves; not enforced very well
Cotton gin revolutionizes the southern economy
Slave labor becomes a key to southern prosperity
Slavery becomes a source for war
Famous Abolitionists
Former slave who escaped slavery
Learned to read and write as a slave; fueled a passion for learning
Had his story published in the Liberator
Editor of the Liberator (abolitionist newspaper)
Used strong statements to describe the evils of slavery
Demanded immediate freedom for slaves
William Lloyd Garrison
Frederick Douglass
American Civil War: 1861-1865
End of the Slave Trade
Section III
Full transcript