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Copy of Copy of Cold War: Mind Map
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Cold War: Mind Map
In theory, Communism: "Everything belongs to the state and should be run by the government on behalf of the people."
No private person should be allowed to profit from the work from other citizens
All profits, instead of going into the pockets of one owner or even shareholders, goes to the state
Lower average standard of living, but (in theory) everyone is equal
A controlled economy
Only one party in govt.- no need for any more Capitalism Truman Doctrine Arms Race Division of Germany Marshall Plan The Soviet Union and other communist countries decided to form their own organization called the Warsaw Pact. Warsaw Pact NATO
NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO was a military alliance formed to counter Soviet power in Europe.
The United States, Canada, and most western European nations were members. New Military Alliances Stalin refused to pull Soviet troops from Eastern European nations occupied during WWII.
He turned these nation into satellite states- countries controlled by a more powerful nation.
Stalin feared the rise of anti-Communist nations on the USSR's western border so he set up communist governments instead.
Stalin was aggressive in his attempts to spread communism.
Winston Churchill used the image of an "iron curtain" to describe the sharp division of Europe due to Soviet action. The Iron Curtain The US and the USSR became superpowers
US: spread of democracy and free enterprise (Capitalism)
USSR: spread of communism- a form of society without social classes or private property
This war of ideals became known as The Cold War.
The US & USSR tried to gain influence in the world by using all possible methods short of total war
"hot war" = war fought with military weapons & real combat
"cold war" = competition without combat
The US and USSR tried to build up the largest supply of weapons
They both gave military and economic aid to weaker nations to "win" their support. Aftermath of WWII After the war, Germany was destroyed and had no functioning government so it was temporarily divided into four occupation zones by the Allies.
East Germany, about a third of the country was put under Soviet rule and West Germany was divided amongst France, Great Britain, and the United States.
Berlin (Germany's Capital), though deep in Soviet territory was divided the same way. 1957- Soviet Scientists surprised and frightened Americans by launching the world's 1st satellite, Sputnik I
1961- USSR topped its Sputnik achievement by sending the spacecraft Vostok into orbit- Yuri Gagarin the 1st human to travel into space sat inside the Vostok
USSR's advancements in space exploration started the space race. US & USSR now competed with another to conquer outer space.
JFK promised to have an American on the moon by the end of the 1960s Space Race Soviet spies were found in the U.S.
Senator McCarthy accused government officials of being Soviet spies and with the paranoia of Soviets lurking in the U.S., no one questioned it.
McCarthy accused hundreds of being Soviet spies or communist sympathizers.
Many of those accused suffered losing their jobs, a destruction of their careers, or prison.
many of the accused were: union activists, in the entertainment industry, and educators. McCarthyism The Marshall Plan was named after the U.S. secretary of state, George Marshall.
This plan gave $13 billion to Western European countries to rebuild.
Marshall believed that if this plan wasn't put into action, all of Europe would turn to communism out of desperation.
Western Europe made a rapid recovery from the war and didn't fall to communism. Cuba's involvement Many countries saw what was happening and didn't want any part of it.
These countries refused to support either side.
These countries became known as the nonaligned nations and they used their combined strength to promote the interests of poorer countries. Deterrence Nonaligned Nations Detente The division of Germany was meant to be temporary and plans to unify a self-governed Western Germany under a democratic government were being made.
A unified, democratic West Berlin was also being planned for and with Berlin deep in communist territory, the Soviets opposed.
The Soviets blocked West Berlin off from all land, rail, and water routes leading into West Berlin, depriving it's residents of vital supplies.
The Soviets hoped this would force the West to leave Berlin, but western leaders refused.
Truman organized the Berlin Airlift. For a year, cargo planes filled with supplies kept the people of West Berlin alive.
In the end the Soviets called off the blockade. Berlin Air lift definition- reduced tension between the superpowers of the world.
SALT (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks) I were negotiations that led to limited numbers of nuclear weapons held by each side. It also resulted in the Anti-Ballistic Missile(ABM) Treaty, this prevented the development of weapons designed to shoot down nuclear missiles. That left each side unprotected which plays into deterrence.
There was another rounds of negotiations called SALT II, it resulted in an arms control treaty, but the U.S. Senate never ratified it. In theory, Capitalism: "All industry, business, and agriculture should be owned by private people or firms. Competition between rival factories or shops or farms will cause prices to fall and make firms more efficient."
Any person should be free to start a business and employ people
Any profit he or she makes is reward for hard work
Average standard of living higher than under Communism, but a wide spread between rich and poor
Opportunity for all
Choice of many parties for the govt., chosen by the people = a democracy
A free economy The Truman Doctrine was a pledge to provide economic and military aid to contain the spread of communism.
Truman promised to stop communism worldwide
The U.S. sent $$$$$ to Turkey and Greece to prevent them from turning to communism. An arms race is struggle between two nations to gain an advantage in weaponry.
The U.S. dropped atomic bombs on two Japanese cities during WWII, after the war, in 1949, the Soviet Union, developed the same technology.
The U.S. was terrified of this news and in 1952, the first hydrogen bomb was detenated. Soon after, the Soviet Union made it's own hydrogen bomb... Containment Japan had control of Korea during the war and after Japan's surrender, the Allies gained control of Korea.
The U.S. and Soviet Union agreed to temporarily split the country in half at the 38th parallel.
The Soviets took control of the north, quickly establishing a communist government.
The U.S. took control of the south, supporting a non-communist regime.
In June of 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea. Korea The U.S. feared that failure to defend South Korea could give the Soviets initiative to attempt further communist expansion.
The U.S. gained permission from the UN to use force to push the North Koreans back.
This permission was granted as a "police action", just to get the North Koreans, north of the 38th parallel.
UN forces were cornered at the very tip of the peninsula until sail to Inchon and attack North Korean forces from behind. UN forces pushed north and completed their "police action", but they continued deep into North Korea, almost reaching the Chinese border.
Communist China furiously entered the war, siding with North Korea.
The Chinese attacked in overwhelmingly large numbers and quickly forced the UN out of North Korea.
Both lines were replaced to their original positions on either side of the 38th parallel and the war ended in a stalemate. definition- the development of or maintenance of military power to prevent an attack.
Many philosophers believed and still believe that knowing an entity has the ability to destroy you, you will not provoke it. This philosophy is what stood behind the arms race during the Cold War.
Bigger, Faster, Better, Stronger. In 1959, rebels lead by Fidel Castro overthrew Cuba's dictator and established a communist government.
Castro forged close ties with the U.S.S.R. and this worried the U.S. with Cuba only 90 miles south of Florida.
Seeking to overthrow Castro, the U.S. secretly trained an invasion force, 1,500 strong.
These trainees were Cubans who fled Castro's regime. In April of 1961, this force traveled to the Bay of Pigs in Cuba.
The invasion was supposed to start a massive uprising against Castro, but instead the invaders were quickly brought down. Bay of Pigs In 1962, a U.S. spy plane spotted nuclear missiles installed in Cuba.
A Soviet cargo ship, towing nuclear missiles to Cuba was also spotted.
This panicked U.S. leaders with Cuba being only 90 miles from American territory.
After some negotiation and an intense two-week standoff, a deal was made.
The Soviets would remove their missiles from Cuba so long as The U.S. removed theirs from Turkey. Cuban Missile Crisis The US had a policy of containment, which involved resisting Soviet aggression.
In doing so, the U.S. could contain or hold back the spread of communism. The Cold War Split the World The Berlin Wall Despite the success of the airlift, Germany divided into two states:
East Germany = Communist government controlled by the USSR.
West Germany = allied with the US & democracy.
Stalin dies in 1953- Nikita Khrushchev takes over.
Khrushchev orders a wall built through Berlin to separate Communist East Berlin from the rest of the city.
Guards shot anyone who tried to leave the Eastern section of the city.
The Wall stood as an icon of the Cold War for nearly 30 years. The United Nations April 1945, delegates from 50 nations drew up a charter for the UN
It replaced the League of Nations as world peace keeping organization
Two agencies: The General Assembly and the Security Council
5 permanent members on Security Council- US, USSR, Great Britain, France, & China. They would decide what actions the UN should take to settle international conflicts.
USSR and US often blocked each other's decisions = major weakness of UN SEATO Cold War conflicts in Asia led to another anti-communist alliance called Southeast Treaty Organization.
Members included the US, Great Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand. CENTO Stands for Central Treaty Organization
Created to block the spread of Communism in the Middle East
Six members- Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Great Britain, and US EEC- European Economic Community 1957- some Europeans believed unity would promote peace: France, West Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Italy signed the Rome Treaty = EEC
EEC members set up a free-trade area. They agreed not to place tariffs, or taxes, on imported goods from EEC nations. However, they did tax the goods of non-EEC nations.