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Genetically Modified Organisms

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by

Ryan Singh

on 20 December 2012

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Transcript of Genetically Modified Organisms

How GMO's are negatively affecting us (Cons) What is a GMO? A Plant or Animal that has been genetically modified to gain desirable or beneficial characteristics The Purpose Of GMO's: Significance in Animals For research and testing purposes. Experiments involving GMO's also help scientists understand how genes work. This includes gene mutation and genetic diseases To create Medical Synthetic Proteins/medicines. Animals such as sheep are able to have their milk GM, allowing desired proteins to be added. To create animals with human genetics to become organ doners for humans. Known as Xenotransplantation To create farm animals with more disease resistant qualities and greater productivity. EX: sheep with more wool, cows with more milk and pigs bacon with little fat Possibilities that may save endangered species. For example, chinese scientists are experimenting to clone the panda. The Purpose Of GMO's: Significance in Plants List of a few Genetically Modified Animals Enviro-Pig (Mouse-Pig) Cows (with human genes) Goats (that produce silk in their milk) Apes (with human genes) Glofish Create a resistance to pests in crops, meaning pesticides do not need to be used. Thus, helping the environment and preventing diseases caused by pesticides. Prevents wasted crops. Since pests can no longer attack the crops, they no longer go to waste. Increasing productivity and money for farmers Potentially solve quantity limits. GM Crops increase the amount of food farmers can grow. This Increases harvest rate and quantity. Can Potentially solve issues regarding climate conditions. GM Plants could be modified to grow in abnormal climates. For example: Strawberries can be modified to grow in frosts. Can increase growth speed. Increased growth speed = increased productivity Role of the Canadian Government Genetically Modified Foods are Regulated by Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency It is a Process that takes up 10 years to complete The Process consists of these 8 steps This resource is classified to be a renewable resource List of Crops Grown in Canada canola To increase nutrients and enhance taste in foods animals produce. (Milk, Meat, Eggs) corn soy sugar beet Canadian Concerns About 60% of Canadians’ processed food has undergone some type of modification Groups such as Greenpeace and Council of Canadians argue about the lack of long term studies 1. Pre-submission consultation 2. Pre-market notification 3. Scientific Assessment 4. Requests for additional information 5. Summary report of findings 6. Preparation of food rulings proposal 7.Letter of no objection 8.Decision document on Health Canada Web site Canadian Concerns About 60 % of Canadians processed food has undergone some type of modification.

Groups such as Greenpeace and Council of Canadians argue about the lack of long term studies History of GMOs 1900: European plant scientists began using Gregor Mendel's genetic theory to manipulate plant species 1953: James Watson and Francis Crick discover the three-dimensional double helix structure of DNA. This discovery led to other methods of genetic modification; such as splicing. 1973: creation of the first successful recombinant DNA organism. 1980: U.S. Supreme Court allows the use and marketing of GMOs. This decision allows GMO's such as Oil eating micro organisms to be created. 1982: U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves the first genetically modified drug. The drug creates a bacteria that produces an insulin very similar to human insulin 1986 & 1987: first field tests of genetically modified plants and crops are done. The first genetically modified vaccine for humans was created. A genetically modified mouse became the first GM mammal 1992: FDA states that GMOs are "not inherently dangerous" and Product regulation is not needed. A GM Tomato that was created to have a longer shelf life was approved for commercial use, 2000: 130 countries agree to the use and marketing of GMOs. Two new sheep (Cupid and Diana) are created by cloning. This time, scientists are able to not just transfer genes but limit other genes How GMOS are Negatively Affecting us (continued.) 1997: A sheep named dolly was cloned. There were many failures in the process of this cloning because many of the clones were born with severe illness'. Finally a successful clone was created, but it died at the age of 6. Increased vitamin and minerals. Important vitamins such as vitamin A or vitamin C can be increased. Lack of vitamin A can increase blindness. thousands go blind in africa every year. GMO's can decrease this rate.
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