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# AQA GCSE Physics P1 (last exam June 2017)

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by

## Andy Darvill

on 18 June 2016

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#### Transcript of AQA GCSE Physics P1 (last exam June 2017)

AQA
GCSE Physics

Topic P1
Energy transfer by heating
Conduction
Particles vibrate,
hit neighbours &
make them vibrate
Metals have free electrons
which are small & light & can
carry energy quickly
Convection
"Hot air rises"
Heat makes particles move faster
they get further apart
so the gas/liquid is less dense
so it tends to rise.
"Infra Red" / "IR"
The only way that
heat can cross a vacuum
An electromagnetic wave
Just
below red
in the EM spectrum
Evaporation
The fastest particles have enough energy to escape
so the average speed of the particles left behind is lower
so the temperature falls
Electromagnetic
waves

Know the
names
of the waves
Know the
order
they're arranged in
Know their
uses
Know their
dangers
Know their
sources
All waves are "
red shifted
"
when the source is
moving away from you
The amount of red shift
tells us the speed
The more distant the galaxy,
the faster it's moving away from us
= evidence for expanding universe
= evidence for Big Bang Theory
"Cosmic Microwave Background" ("CMB")
= red shifted remnant of the radiation
from the Big Bang
Waves
Transverse waves
Longitudinal waves

Amplitude
Wavelength
Frequency
Velocity
velocity = frequency x wavelength
Reflection
Waves bounce off something

angle of incidence = angle of reflection
Refraction
Waves change speed when they enter a different medium

This can cause them to change direction
Plane mirrors - image laterally inverted- be able to draw a diagram of this.

Curved mirrors
convex
concave

Lenses
convex
(concave)

Refraction at water surface
Dispersion
Shorter wavelengths are refracted more
("Blue Bends Best")

So white light can be dispersed into colours
Diffraction
Waves spread out after passing through a narrow gap
Energy
Types of energy

Kinetic (KE)
Grav. Potential (GPE)
Strain
Light
Sound
Electrical
Chemical
Heat
"Conservation of energy"
= "energy can't be created or destroyed"
Efficiency
= useful energy out x 100
total energy in
Sankey Diagrams

It's all about the width of the arrows
Electrical
Energy

Energy in Joules

Power in Watts (= Joules per second)
Electricity bills

Energy in kiloWatt-hours (kWh)
= the energy used by a 1,000W machine in 1 hour
(= 3,600,00 Joules)

Cost = kWh used x price per kWh
Generating
Electricity

National Grid
Transformers
Step voltages up and down
When you
step the voltage up
you s
tep the current down
Current causes losses, esp. in long cables

So reducing the current reduces the losses
Renewable resources
wind
wave
hydro
tidal
solar
biomass
geothermal
Non-renewable resources
coal
oil
gas
nuclear (uranium)
"Fossil
Fuels"
For each energy resource, know
how it works
Pumped storage
to cope with surges in demand
Higher &
Foundation
http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg
Explore:
http://www.darvill.clara.net/emag
Explore
Real image
: the rays cross there, and it can be caught on a screen

Virtual image
: the rays only look like they came from there, and it can't be caught on a screen
Full transcript