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AQA GCSE Physics P1 (last exam June 2017)
Transcript of AQA GCSE Physics P1 (last exam June 2017)
Energy transfer by heating
hit neighbours &
make them vibrate
Metals have free electrons
which are small & light & can
carry energy quickly
"Hot air rises"
Heat makes particles move faster
they get further apart
so the gas/liquid is less dense
so it tends to rise.
"Infra Red" / "IR"
The only way that
heat can cross a vacuum
An electromagnetic wave
in the EM spectrum
The fastest particles have enough energy to escape
so the average speed of the particles left behind is lower
so the temperature falls
of the waves
they're arranged in
All waves are "
when the source is
moving away from you
The amount of red shift
tells us the speed
The more distant the galaxy,
the faster it's moving away from us
= evidence for expanding universe
= evidence for Big Bang Theory
"Cosmic Microwave Background" ("CMB")
= red shifted remnant of the radiation
from the Big Bang
velocity = frequency x wavelength
Waves bounce off something
angle of incidence = angle of reflection
Waves change speed when they enter a different medium
This can cause them to change direction
Plane mirrors - image laterally inverted- be able to draw a diagram of this.
Refraction at water surface
Shorter wavelengths are refracted more
("Blue Bends Best")
So white light can be dispersed into colours
Waves spread out after passing through a narrow gap
Types of energy
Grav. Potential (GPE)
"Conservation of energy"
= "energy can't be created or destroyed"
= useful energy out x 100
total energy in
It's all about the width of the arrows
Energy in Joules
Power in Watts (= Joules per second)
Energy in kiloWatt-hours (kWh)
= the energy used by a 1,000W machine in 1 hour
(= 3,600,00 Joules)
Cost = kWh used x price per kWh
Step voltages up and down
step the voltage up
tep the current down
Current causes losses, esp. in long cables
So reducing the current reduces the losses
For each energy resource, know
how it works
to cope with surges in demand
: the rays cross there, and it can be caught on a screen
: the rays only look like they came from there, and it can't be caught on a screen