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Ancient Greece: Military, Religion, Democracy
Transcript of Ancient Greece: Military, Religion, Democracy
Council of 500: Wrote laws for Assembly to vote on.
Judicial Body: heard cases and sentenced criminals. Structure of Athenian Government Peisistratus: He was a tyrant (a strong person who takes power by force and is often a cruel leader. Many times they take advantage of an upset group of citizens to gain power).
Popular=got rid of aristocrats and brought more trade to Athens. Democracy, cont. Draco: Created a system of punishments to gain order due to the political unrest.
Such punishments might include being put to death for stealing an apple.
This system was unsuccessful. Democracy, cont. Myths: stories told to give examples of ways that people should or should not behave.
Heroic Myths: people learned from the actions of a hero
Hubris: overconfidence could sometimes lead to a hero’s downfall (taught people to be humble). Other Greek Mythology Worshipped for the protection and favors that they could bring.
Each city-state had a god that they worshipped more than the rest.
Ex: Athens worshipped the goddess Athena.
There were also sacred places and temples for worshipping the gods.
The city of Olympia was home to the Olympics, which were played for the gods. Greek Religion, cont. Hoplite Phalanx Originally fought in small cavalries (horseback) with spear-throwers (champions); began to change in 8th century BC.
Hoplite Phalanx: a hoplite was a heavily armed infantryman (foot soldier) who battled with a spear and a very large shield.
Put into a phalanx 8 men deep. Without that formation, the men’s right side was in danger to being attacked by an enemy . Military System of City-States Military Generals: some influence in government
Archon: Chief of State in Athens; head of the assembly and the council; one-term but could be reelected. Structure of Athenian Gov’t, cont. Participants in Government: Males, military training, 20 or older (no slaves, women, or immigrants)
Had to: vote in each election, serve if elected, fight in army. A Closer Look at Athenian Democracy Cleisthenes: Split Athens into 12 tribes based on where people lived to weaken aristocracy.
Each tribe=Chose 50 men to serve on the council to propose laws; chose 1 army general. Democracy, cont. Solon: created a system to replace Draco’s.
Encouraged trade to reduce poverty and outlawed debt slavery.
All men were allowed to participate in most aspects of government.
Only the rich could hold political offices.
This was successful for a while. Democracy, cont. Athens: a strong Greek city-state
Democracy: government controlled by the people
Monarchy: rule by a king; Greece during its early period
Aristocracy: government ruled by the elites
Created class issues between the rich and poor. Athens and Democracy God of metalworking. Hephaestus Goddess of wisdom. Athena Goddess of marriage and women; Queen of the gods. Hera King of the gods,
and the god of lightning. Zeus Polytheistic: worshipped multiple gods.
Pantheon: a group of related gods
Each god or goddess was related to either natural phenomena (i.e. water) or something from people’s everyday lives (i.e. love). Greek Religion Hoplites used a variety of weapons and equipment:
Spear: 6 to 8 feet long; one inch thick; had a small sword for defense, as well
Shield: 3 feet wide; 1 inch thick
Helmet: difficult to see; not always fitted
Greaves: bronze covering for the legs
Breastplate: protected the chest and abdomen; 30-40 pounds. Military Systems, cont. Military, Religion, and Democracy Ancient Greece Messenger god. And god of trade. Hermes Goddess of love. Aphrodite Goddess of hunting
and the moon. Artemis God of the sun. Apollo God of war. Ares Goddess of family. Hestia Goddess of the harvest. Demeter God of the Ocean; Zeus’ brother Poseidon The Greek’s 12 main gods were said to live on Mount Olympus (highest mountain in Greece). Religion, cont.