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Transcript of ANCIENT EGYPT
By: Aimee, Emma, Zane, Nicco, Teon, Daniella, Francesca
During most of Ancient Egypt's pharaonic history, there was no money in the form of coins.
Not until the first millennium B.C. where coins used in Egypt, and they were from foreign countries.
Instead they used bread, beer, grain, meat and cloth, which were the necessities back then.
Egypt is country in northern Africa
It had a dry and very hot climate
This climate meant Egyptians had very little water
There main water source of water was the Nile
This river was key to Egypt's success.
Location and Physical Features:
:The greatest natural resource in Ancient Egypt was the Nile River that provided fish and transportation.
The Egyptians would sail along the Nile looking for people to trade with and sometimes would even travel across the deserts to trade.
Occasionally - Decorative Artifacts
Cedar Wood from Lebanon
Ebony and Ivory from Africa
Incense, Myrrh and Oils from Punt
Lapis Lazuli from Afghanistan
Gold from Nubia
Trade Influenced Culture and Politics:
Important materials such as copper and iron they got from their best allies.
Trade was also used in encouraging friendship between civilizations.
Artist used ebony, linen, iron, and copper for their crafts.
Government officials and the Pharaohs used luxury items such as copper and incense.
Scribes traded for better food, such as meat, beer, and fish.
:Different types of rock and minerals were quarried in Ancient Egypt.
:Gold was the biggest export that was mined in Egypt.
:Stone was mined far out in the desert quarries were the pyramids were built.
:Flint was another important stone for Ancient Egyptian.
It was used for making sickles for harvesting crops and making weapons.
:Copper was the main metal mostly used in Egypt. Copper comes naturally mixed with other ores. The ore has to be heated to remove the copper from the other elements. The Egyptians used a heating process called smelting to remove impurities fro the copper.
:Flax was a another natural resources that developed in Egypt. Seed were removed, and the core of the plant was placed in water for a week or more. Then they are beat and separated it into parts that were spun into linen cloth
:Egypt lacked good trees for wood due to dryness of the climate. Cedar wood had to be imported from Lebanon to meet the Egyptians' needs.
For Egyptians bread was a staple diet
meals were often served with bear or wine
the most widely consumed fruit was probably dates
there are few precise accounts of meals
The use for banquets were mostly for celebrations
most kings and queens had a royal food taster in case the food was poisoned
The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of burial customs that they believed were necessary to ensure immortality after death.
These rituals and protocols included mummifying the body, casting spells, and a burial with goods that would be needed for the afterlife.
The opening of the mouth ceremony was then conducted by a priest who would utter a spell and touch the mummy with a ceremonial adze (a copper or stone blade). This ceremony ensured the mummy could breath in he afterlife.
The king's mummy was then placed in the pyramid with a large amount of food, drink and jewelry, which were to be used in the afterlife.
The ancient Egyptians were one of the first civilizations to write. But it took many years of skill and hard work.
They invented a type of writing called hieroglyphic. It was made entirely out of pictures and symbols.
The men who did this writing as a living were called scribes. They had to go to scribe school to learn how to write.
Ancient Egyptians wrote using reed brushes and wrote on pottery, flakes of limestone, and papyrus scripts.
Hieroglyphics were invented in 3400 B.C by themselves but they believed it was invented by the god, Thoth.
Most Egyptians lead a simple life but hard life
Egyptian children were raised to be polite. They were known as a blessing to everyone else. Most of them were not educated; they worked the whole day.
Everyone married young because they died young. Their wedding was small which they would invite their relatives over.
The cosmetics they used were all brightly coloured. They believed that their cosmetics had magical and healing powers.
It was very helpful to be educated in Egypt and it made it easier to get a job. Cultural structure was a big part of Egyptian society
During the Old Kingdom, the priesthoods attempted to organize the national pantheon into groups.
Early in the Old Kingdom Ra grew in influence.
Theban pharaohs initially promoted their patron god Monthu. But during the Middle Kingdom, he was eclipsed by the rising popularity of Amun.
Art & Crafts
-Egyptians loved to make beautiful crafts
-They made jewelery like rings, pendents,
There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt since 2008
The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara northwest of Memphis
The most famous pyramids are those found in Giza
Made mostly of limestone cap made of granite or basalt
Were occasionally plated with gold, silver or electrum (an alloy of gold and silver)
20-30 thousand labourers were needed to make a pyramids
- They also made baskets and storage pots
Pyramid / Year/ Pharaoh Reign Field
Djoser c. 2670 BCE Saqqara
Sneferu c. 2612–2589 BCE Dashur
Sneferu c. 2612–2589 BCE Meidum
Khufu c. 2589–2566 BCE Giza
Djedefre c. 2566–2558 BCE Abu Rawash
Khafre c. 2558–2532 BCE Giza
Menkaure c. 2532–2504 BCE Giza
Userkaf c. 2494–2487 BCE Saqqara
Sahure c. 2487–2477 BCE Abu Sir
Neferirkare Kakai c. 2477–2467 BCE Abu Sir
Nyuserre Ini c. 2416–2392 BCE Abu Sir
Amenemhat I c. 1991–1962 BCE Lisht
Senusret I c. 1971–1926 BCE Lisht
Senusret II c. 1897–1878 BCE El-Lahun
Amenemhat III c. 1860–1814 BCE Hawara
Khendjer c. 1764–1759 BCE Saqqara
Piye c. 721 BCE El-Kurru
Taharqa c. 664 BCE Nuri
- They played music for pleasure and
-The Egyptians played the major categories of musical instruments (percussion, wind, stringed)
Is centered around interaction with many gods
Individuals can interact with the gods for there own purposes
Has its roots in Egypt's prehistory and lasted more than 3,000 years
At various times certain gods gained or lost power as the religious believes changed
the head of the legal system was officially the pharaoh who was responsible for enacting laws, delivering justice, and maintaining law and order, a concept the egyptians refer to as Ma'at
the egyptians developed the highest and most sophisticated comic law which were the 42 commandments
the punishments handed down to those convicted in court depended on the severity of their crime.
in the new kingdom, the ancient egyptian legal system evolved to using local councils called Kenbet as the court system
- Dancing was usually performed at banquets and religious events in ancient Egypt.
- The choreography was very complex and included slow eloquent steps.
- Their dance was similar to gymnastics. They did back bends, cartwheels, and the splits.
- Dance was popular in Rome then some dancers were brought to Egypt.
-The dancers who performed were picked among the servants along with some professional dancers who were hired for the event.
-Male and female voices were both used in Egyptian music when singing
- The Egyptians mostly performed religious, pageant-like, or ritual dramas.
- Because they honored the gods, Osiris, Iris, Horus and the Sun gods, they always performed in the temples or near the temples.
- All performances were role-plays and re-enactments of the gods.
- The shows were mostly viewed and performed by members of priesthood.
- An important example of their drama was "The Triumph of Horus" which the battle of Horus and Seth is described.
-Music played a very important part in ancient Egyptian life
-The Egyptians loved music and talented musicians were in great demand
AN ATTACK :
-Archers begin the attack with a hail of arrows
- then the foot soldiers close in hand to hand combat
-then the chariots sweep by to chase the survivors from the field.
-The Nubian, with there simple bows and clubs are no match for the better armed egyptians. the battle is soon over.
Spears:The spear does not fit comfortably into either the close combat class or the projectile type of weapons. It could be either. It typically consisted of a pointed blade made of copper or flint that was attached to a long wooden shaft. Conventional spears were made for throwing or thrusting, but there was also a form of spear (halberd) which was fitted with an axe blade and thus used for cutting and slashing.
THE SPOLIS OF VICTORY:
-the Egyptian soldiers set fire to the Nubian encampment
-they also gathered booty of food and animal skins.
-Nubian captives are led away into slavery.
-Scribes would count piles of hands cut from the dead warriors
-this was a grisly way of counting the dead enemy.
-Ancient Egyptians were the first to create housing made of sun dried-bricks.
-the houses were made by stacking the brick over top of each other and using mud from the river as glue.
- the brick were made of mud and straw, and water all evenly mixed together.
-the construction its self took place during the dry season in some places as flooding occasionally occurred.
-in every location during a building project brick molds of equal size were used, which were between about 45 to 30 cm in length and 20 to 15 cm in width.
- a mud brick maker can produce between 1000 and 2000 bricks a day.
-the Egyptians created innovations that helped their city thrive throughout the time period of around 3000 years in length
-the Astronomers of ancient Egypt created the calender with 365 days
-the calender helped them know when the flood would come, so they could prepare
- they created the time measurement system of 24 hours in a day
-additionally, they created a water clock and a shadow clock
-they also had a shadof, a tool to help them get water out of the Nile River
-it was a log with a weight on one end and the bucket on the other
-they would dip the bucket in the water, then when the bucket was full they would drop the weight, and the bucket would lift up
-Women wore long dresses with jewelery and head dresses
-Men wore kilts that was tied at the waist with a belt
-Children did not wear anything until they were about six
-Egyptians mostly went barefoot but sometimes wore sandals
-Both men and women wore makeup
-The royal family wore the finest linen and different hedresses and crowns
-The Egyptian military readily adapted enemy weapons and technologies, becoming a powerhouse of the ancient world and on of the great military forces of history.
-The Egyptians had the advantage of being ethically and culturally unified, an advantage when it comes to governing.
-Egypt's armies were better organized and saw more variety of units containing special shock troops armed with axes or bows, and shields.
-egyptians battle tactics in the knew kingdom used revolutionized armies in which war chariots and various types of new weapons had been introduced by Asiatic Hyksos
-these armies of highly -trained men had more striking power and were commanded by professional officers for the first time in Egyptian military history
-The Egyptians also made sculptures
This is how big the great pyramid of Giza was
- The Egyptians made beautiful paintings
If you are on this prezi for some reason I would like to say have a great summer and I am hoping that I can visit all of you some time next year.
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hi if ur reading this cause ur bored