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Transcript of Motivating
DEXTER BALANA MOTIVATING What is Motivation? Act of “giving employees reasons or incentives… to work to achieve organizational objectives.”
“Process of activating behavior, sustaining it, and directing it toward a particular goal.” Factors Contributing to Motivation 1. Willingness to do a job. People who like what they are doing are highly motivated to produce the expected output.
2. Self-confidence in carrying out a task. When employees feel that they have the required skill and training to perform a task, the more motivated they become.
3. Needs satisfaction. People will do their jobs well if they feel that by doing so, their needs will be satisfied. Theories of Motivation 1. Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory
2. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
3. Expectancy theory
4. Goal setting theory Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Food, water, sleep, sex, body elimination SECURITY NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS ESTEEM NEEDS SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS Freedom from harm, financial security Friendship, belonging, love Status, respect, prestige Self-fulfillment The Relevance of Maslow’s Theory to Engineering Management Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory LEVEL OF SATISFACTION LEVEL OF DISSATISFACTION Level of no satisfaction and no dissatisfaction (no reason not to work but no motivation to work hard) 10
10 Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory is based on the following assumptions: 1. A combination of forces within the individual and in the environment determines behavior.
2. People make decisions about their own behavior and that of organizations.
3. People have different types of needs, goals, and desires.
4. People make choices among alternatives behaviors based on the extent to which they think a certain behavior will lead to a desired outcome. EFFORT PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES EXPECTANCY EXPECTANCY perceived probability of successful performance, given effort perceived probability of receiving an outcome, given performance First-level
(recognition) Valence + Valence + Second-level
(ability to purchase house & lot) Second-level
(ability to purchase house & lot) Second-level
(esteem of others) Valence + Valence + Valence + Valence - An Expectancy Model Goal Setting Theory The goal setting model drawn by Edwin A. Locke and his associate consists of the following components. 1. Goal Content. To be sufficient in content, goals must be challenging, attainable, specific and measurable, time-limited, and relevant.
When goals are challenging, higher performance may be expected. The sales quotas imposed by companies to individual members of their sales force indicate reliance of these companies to the use of challenging goals.
Goals must be attainable if they are to be set. If they are not, then workers will only be discouraged to perform, if at all.
Goals must be stated in quantitative terms whenever possible. When exact figures to be met are set, understanding is facilitated and workers are motivated to perform.
There must be a time-limit set for goals to be accomplished.
The more relevant the goals are to the company's mission, the more support it can generate from various levels of employment in the organization. How Goals Motivate and Facilitate Performance TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION Individual or groups of individuals may be motivated to perform through the use of various techniques. These techniques may be classified as follows:
1. motivation through job design
2. motivation through rewards
3. motivation through employee participation
4. other motivation techniques for the diverse work force Management of Extrinsic Rewards To motivate job performance effectively, extrinsic rewards must be properly managed in line with the following: 1. it must satisfy individual need;
2. the employees must believe effort will lead to reward;
3. rewards must be equitable;
4. rewards must be linked to performance. Motivation Through Employee Participation When employees participate in deciding various aspects of theirs jobs, the personal involvement, oftentimes, is carried up to the point where the task is completed.
The specific activities identified where employees may participate are as follows:
1. setting goals
2. making decisions
3. solving problems, and
4. designing and implementing organizational changes.
The more popular approaches to participation includes
1. Quality Control Circles. A method of direct employee
participation is the quality control circle (QCC). The objective of the QCC is to increase productivity and quality of output.
The circle consists of "a group of three to ten employees usually doing related work, who met at regular intervals (once a week for an hour, for example) to identify problems and discuss their solutions. " The circle includes "a leader such as a foreman, but rely on democratic processes." The members are trained in various analysis techniques by a coordinator.
The circle forwards its recommendations to management, which in turn, makes decisions on its adaption.
2. Self-managed Teams. When workers have reached a certain degree of discipline, they may be ripe for forming self-managed teams. Also known as autonomous work groups or high performance teams, self-managed teams "take on traditional managerial tasks as part of their normal work routine."
The self-managed teams work on their own, turning out a complete product or service and receiving minimal supervision from managers who act more as facilitators than supervisors.
When a product or service is produced by a group of professionals or specialists, they might as well be formed as a self-manged team to save on supervisory costs. Requisites to Successful Employee Participation Program To succeed, an employee participation program will require the following: 1. a profit-sharing or gainsharing plan.
2. a long-term employment relationship with good job security.
3. a concerted effort to build and maintain group cohesiveness.
4. protection of the individual employee's right. Other Motivation Techniques The advent of theories on individual differences and the biological clock of human beings put pressure on the engineer manager to adapt other motivation techniques whenever applicable. These refer to the following:
1. Flexible Work Schedules. There is an arrangement, called flextime, which allows employees to determine their own arrival and departure times within specified limits. For example, an engineering firm may allow one group of employees to take the 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM schedule, another group takes the 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM schedule, another group take the 10:00 AM to 7:00 PM schedule .
An alternative to this arrangement is the adaption of the forty-hour work in four days allowing the employee to choose a "day-off".
An innovation of a popular bank in Makati is the hiring of part-time tellers to work in four hours a day from Monday to Friday.
There are certain benefits that are offered by flexible work schedules, although it is not appropriate for all situations. Nevertheless, the engineer manager must decide when it is applicable.
2. Family Support Services. Employees are oftentimes burdened by family obligations like caring for children. Progressive companies provide day care facilities for children of employees. A multinational company in far flung Davao province has even opened an elementary and a high school within the plantation site.
3. Sabbaticals. A sabbatical leave is one given to an employee after a certain number of years of service. The employee is allowed to go on leave for two months to one year with pay to give him time for family, recreations, and travel.
It is expected that when the employee returns for work , his motivation is improved. The Quality Control Circle Process Quality circle members brainstorm, gather data, and establish cause and effect. Quality circle members prepare solutions and recommendations Results are measured and feedback,
recognition and rewards given to quality control circle members. Management considers quality circle recommendations and makes decisions. The Process of Motivation NEEDS MOTIVATION ACTION OR GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR NEED SATISFACTION plus leads to which results to which leads to readiness for the next need Even if Maslow's theory has been largely questioned, one basic premise cannot be discarded: a fulfilled need no longer motivates an individual . If this is the situation the subordinate is in, the engineer manager must identify an unfulfilled need and work out a scheme so that the subordinate will be motivated to work in order to satisfy the unfulfilled need. Abraham Maslow, a psychologist, theorized that human beings have five basic needs which are as follows: physiological, security, social, esteem, and self-actualization. These needs are hierarchical, which means, one need will have to be satisfied first before the other need. The two-factor theory is one developed by Frederick Herzberg indicating that a satisfied employee is motivated from within to work harder and that a dissatisfied employee is not self-motivated.
Herzberg identified two classes of factors associated with employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction. In his researched, Herzberg found out that that satisfied employees mentioned the following factors (called satisfiers or motivation factors) responsible for job satisfaction: achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Dissatisfied employees mentioned the following factors (called dissatisfiers or hygiene factors) as responsible for job dissatisfaction: company policy and administration, supervision, relationship with peers, personal life, relationship with subordinates, status, and security.
If Herzberg theory will be considered by the engineer manager in motivating employees, he must do something to eliminate the dissatisfiers and install satisfiers. Frederick Herzberg Expectancy theory is a motivation model based on the assumption that an individual will work depending on his perception of the probability of his expectations to happen.
The theory poses the idea that motivation is determined by expectancies and valences. An expectancy is a belief about the likelihood or probability that a particular behavioral act (like attending training sessions) will lead to a particular outcome (like a promotion). Valence is the value an individual places on the expected outcomes or rewards. Goal setting refers to the process of "improving performance with objectives, deadlines or quality standard." When individuals or groups are assigned specific goals, a clear direction is provided and which later motivates them to achieve these goals. 2. Goal Commitment. When individuals or groups are committed to the goals they are supposed to achieve, there is a chance that they will be able to achieve them.
3. Work Behavior. Goals influence behavior in terms of directions, effort, persistence, and planning. When an individuals is provided with direction, performance is facilitated. In trying to attain goals that are already indicated, the individual is provided with a direction to exert more effort. The identification of goals provide a reason for an individual to persist in his efforts until the goal is attained.
Once goals are set, the first important input to planning is already in place.
4. Feedback Aspects. Feedback provide the individuals with a way of knowing how far they have gone in achieving objectives. Feedback also facilitate the introduction of corrective measures whenever they are found to be necessary. Motivation Through Job Design A person will be highly motivated to perform if he is assigned a job he likes. The first requisite, however, is to design jobs that will meet the requirements of the organization and the persons who will occupy them. Job design may be defined as "specifying the tasks that constitute a job for an individual or a group."
In motivating through the use of job design, two approaches may be used: fitting people to jobs or fitting jobs to people.
Fitting People to Jobs. Routine and repetitive tasks make workers suffer from chronic dissatisfaction. To avoid this, the following remedies may be adapted:
1. Realistic job previews - where management provides honest
explanations of what a job actually entails.
2. Job rotation - where people are moved periodically from one
specialized job to another.
3. Limited exposure - where a worker's exposure to a highly
fragmented and tedious job is limited.
Fitting Jobs to People. Instead of changing the person, management may consider changing the job. This may be achieved with the use of the following:
1. Job enlargement - where two or more specialized tasks in a work
flow sequence is combined into a single job.
2. Job enrichment - where efforts are made to make jobs more
interesting, challenging, and rewarding.
Motivation Through Rewards Rewards consist of material and psychological benefits to employees for performing tasks in the workplace. Properly administered reward systems can improve job performance and satisfaction.
Rewards may be classified into two categories:
1. Extrinsic - those which refer to payoffs granted to the individual by another party. Examples are money, employee benefits, promotions, recognition, status symbols, praise, etc.
2. Intrinsic rewards - those which are internally experienced payoffs which are self-granted. Examples are a sense of accomplishments, self-esteem and self-actualization. No single type of reward is generally applicable to all employees. This is so because individual persons have needs different from other persons. As much as possible the particular needs of an individual must be matched with the corresponding reward if motivation is the objective. The administrative constraints inherent to such systems, however, will be a hindrance to its adoption. Whenever feasible, however, it must be used.
Employees must believe that efforts will lead to reward. Otherwise, they will not strive to turn in more efforts in their particular job assignments.
Rewards that are not equitable will not produce the desired motivation.
When employees know that reward is tied up to individual performance, management may expect extra efforts from them. A negative example is the practice in some government offices where every employee, regardless of performance, is given a productivity bonus. As a result, the majority are not motivated to exert extra efforts.