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Drugs in sports

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Clarence Leung

on 16 February 2015

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Transcript of Drugs in sports

Adil Ansari, Bobby Standley, Cagin Eseri, Clarence Leung,
Fatma Veziroglu, Gary Rowley. Gordon Bedford, Harriet Hughes, Hema Khakh, Ildem Misirli, Sarah Patel, Terence Chan, Toqir Shafaqat

Drug Abuse in Sports
Why do athletes abuse drugs?
To improve performance, response time and oxygen transport around the body
To relieve pain so that injured athletes can continue with their training
To build muscles quicker than with training alone
To calm down before/during a sports event
Main classes of drugs
abused in sports
1. Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors and Related Substances

2. Diuretics and Masking Agents

3. Beta Agonists and Beta-Blockers

4. Hormones and Metabolic Modulators

5. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

THE END
Any Questions?
Prohibited at ALL times
(In & Out of Competition)
Mechanism of Action
Commonly Abused by:
EPO


Adverse Reactions
(ADR's)

EPO:
HTN, haematocrit value, the risk of thrombosis.

hGH:
acromegaly, gigantism, metabolic and endocrine disorders.

hCG
: Headache, tiredness and mood changes
1. Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors and Related Substances
A. Erythropoietin (EPO)
e.g. Binocrit, Aranesp

B. Human Growth Hormone (hGH)
e.g. Genotropin

C. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)
e.g. Choragon
hGH
hCG
WADA Status
WADA Status:
Prohibited at ALL times
(In and Out of Competition)
Mechanism of Action
Diuretics can
cause an acute in weight
modify urination rate and concentration of prohibited drugs
Masking agents help removal of illegal substances from body faster.
Commonly Abused by:
Adverse Reactions
(ADR's)
Electrolyte imbalance


Muscle cramps


Dehydration
2. Diuretics and Masking Agents
WADA Status
Beta Agonists: Prohibited at ALL times (In and Out of Competition) with several exceptions

Beta-Blockers: Prohibited in competition only in particular sports
Mechanism of Action
Beta Agonists:

Mimic the effects of SNS bronchodilation
However, may have anabolic effects when administered systematically
Therefore, all beta agonists are prohibited except specific inhaled formulations

Beta-Blockers:


Commonly Abused by:
Adverse Reactions (ADRs)
Beta Agonists:
Nervous tension, headache, muscle cramps, palpitation, etc.

Beta-Blockers:
GI disturbances, Bradycardia, heart failure, hypotension, conduction disorders, peripheral vasoconstriction, bronchospasm, etc.

3. Beta Agonists
and Beta Antagonists
A.
Beta Agonist
e.g. Salbutamol, Formeterol

B.
Beta Blockers
e.g. Bisoprolol, Pindolol
WADA Status:
Prohibited at ALL times
(In and Out of Competition)
Mechanism of Action:
A.
Aromatase inhibitors:






B.
SERMS
Oestrogen antagonist in uterine, endometrium and breast tissues.
Oestrogen agonists in bone tissue and lipid metabolism

C.
Insulin
Insulin is a anabolic hormone which blood glucose levels.
Commonly Abused by:
A.
Aromatase Inhibitors
- Athletes in general

B.
SERMS
- Male athletes


C.
Insulin:
Body builders
Adverse Reactions (ADR's)
Aromatase inhibitors -
Hot flushes, hypercholesterolaemia, arthralgia, fatigue, increased sweating and nausea.

SERMS
- Abdominal discomfort, hot flushes etc.

Insulin
- Brain damage, Hypoglycaemia etc.
4. Hormone and Metabolic Modulators
A.
Aromatase inhibitors

e.g. Formestane, Letrozole

B.
SERMS
e.g. Raloxifene, tamoxifene

C.
Insulin


CAI's:
e.g. Azetazolamide
Osmotic:
e.g. Mannitol
Loop:
e.g. Furosemide
Thiazides:
e.g. Hydrochlorothiazide
K+ Sparing:
e.g. Tramterene
WADA status:
Prohibited at ALL times
(In and Out of Competition)
Mechanism of Action
weight and sense of well being by promoting protein synthesis
muscle mass
appetite
Commonly Abused by:
Adverse Reactions
5. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids
Endogenous: e.g. Testosterone
Exogenous: e.g. Nandrolone
WADA Status:
EPO:






hGH:



hCG:
Maintain corpus luteum during pregnancy release of progesterone during the first trimester.
Stimulate leydig cells of testes production of testosterone and epitestosterone
Full transcript