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Sarah Ayala

on 17 April 2013

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Volcanoes By: Mia & Sarah Volcano Formation Crater: funnel-shaped pit, often formed aroun the vents of these volcanoes. Lava: magma that has reached Earth Volcano: a vent in the Earth's crust through which lava, steam, ashes, and gases are forced. Magma: melted rock beneath the Earth's surface Hotspots: places on the Earth's surface that are directly above a column of rising magma. Volcano Zones 90% of volcanoes occur along plate boundaries. Fun Facts: The Ring of Fire- 60% of all volcanoes form the subduction zones along the Pacific plate Rifts- heat generated by these collisions melts the crust, forcing magma through rifts. Deep cracks that form between two tectonic plates as they seperate. The Atlantic Ocean has plates move away from each other and they form the mid-Atlantic ridge. One plate moves toward Europe and the other moves toward North America Pahoehoe: lava that has a smooth or billowy
surface. Phoehoe forms in several different ways- puffy pillows of lava (looks like large black clouds on the ground), ropy-textured lava (forms when lava hardens while lava beneath it continues to flow). Volcanic Material Aa-is lava that has a rough surface.It carries rough fragments of rock as it flows Pluton-body of magma that has hardened underground. It forms in different forms. Pyroclastics: solid volcanic materials such as ash and rocks Volcanic Bombs: blobs of magma that are shot into the air by a volcano. Types & Eruptions Active volcano- volcano that has erupted recently or will erupt soon Dormant volcano- volcano that has not erupted for a long time but may erupt again. Mt. St. Helens Fun Facts
Last Eruption-July10,2008 Fun Facts-
Last Eruption-1944 Mount Vesuvius Mt. Mayon Fun Facts:
Last Eruption-2010 Alive volcano- volcano that is curnetly erupting. They are classified into 6 different types Located in the Ring of Fire Located in Gulf of Naples, Italy Skamania Country, Washington Shield volcano-gently sloping volcano built almost entirely of lava flows. Shield volcanoes form from Icelandic and Hawaiian eruptions. Icelandic eruption- mild eruption of gas and thin lava through several vents. Ash hovers over thelava path which flows on a flat surface. Hawaiian eruption-mild eruption of gas and thin lava through one vent. they are not explosive eruptions; the magma exiting the volcano has low visosity and has very little gas mixed with it, so the lava flows easily out of a shield volcano, oozing like syrup over pancakes Fun Facts:
Lava in older volcanoes is very thick. It moves so slowly it could get stuck in the vent. Extinct volcano-volcano that can no longer erupt. Sometime it is hard to tell if the volcano is extinct or not. Types Strombolian Eruption- explorsive eruption of thick lava and steam or gas. This eruption rips the cone of the volcano apart with ash and lava, creating a gash that looks like torn paper. Lava and ash usally cover this gash. Composite Volcano- a deep-sided bolcano composed of lava, ash, and cinders. Sometimes composite volcanoes shoot rock into the sky; at other times they flow with thick lava. Vulcanian Eruption an eruption composed of bursts of dark ash, steam, and gas.The eruption can shoot gas and ash 10miles into the air. Glowing clouds surround the eruption Cinder Cone- a small, cone-shaped volcano built of ash and cinders. Cinder volcanoes only have one vent. During the Eruption magma cinders rush through the vent and burst into toward the sky. When the eruption is over the cloud of ash settles on top of the cone. Each eruption adds more ash. Types Pelean Eruption- An eruption composed of fine ash, gas-charged fragments of lava, and superheated steam in an incandescent "cloud" that travels downhill at great speed Plinian Eruption-an eruption characterized by hot ash clouds, deadly pyroclastic flows, or both. Most violent eruption, often starting unexpectedly after a long, quiet time. Thick lava and gas explode deep in the volcano, and gas shoots upward into a high cloud. The top collapses, forming a huge crater Fun Facts-
Sometimes large circular depressions called Calderas form at the top of a volcano. It forms when magma is withdrawn or erupts from a magma chamber, leaving a void beneath the surface. This results in a lack of support for the rock on top of it which then collapses into the void forming a caldera In Conclusion... Volcanoes are made in many different ways. The formation of a volcano is a varied and fasinating study.
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