Transcript of Louis Dwight / Prison Reform
Louis Dwight / Prison Reform By : Kyle Yourous Overview Prisons had started of fine, but were becoming worse in the early 1800's. Prisoners were tortured, many cried out for help, and many of the mentally ill citizens were held in the prisons. Treatment of the mentally ill Anyone who was mentally ill was put in jail and treated unjustly Mentally Ill's Cells Mentally ill were kept in cells with nothing but a thin layer of hay to be used for their beds. These citizens were kept in cells while they were tied with rags around their bodies. They were treated like animals and had barely any cleanliness or comfort was paid attention to. Louis Dwight Louis Dwight was a prison reform activist. He traveled around to inmates in jails to deliver bibles, since he was unable to join the ministry due to an accident that damaged his lungs. When he visited prisons he saw the different conditions of prisoners and also saw the mentally ill. When he saw the ill he started work on forming the Boston Prison Discipline Society. Boston Prison Discipline Society The Boston Prison Discipline Society was a prison reform group that went to prisons to try and make them better by trying to push on the Auburn Prison's prison system. Auburn Prison Disaster The Auburn prison disaster was when the patients were treated so badly that 80 of them went either mentally insane or committed suicide. Auburn Prison Reform The Governor was so shocked, as well as many others, that he wanted Auburn to take a strict approach to this event. The approach was to make the prison a lot more disciplined. Before this idea took full effect there were many tries that took place. The Auburn system was cheaper as well. Auburn Prison Comparison Auburn prison system was cheaper than the Pennsylvania system. Cheaper construction was possible because cells were able to be built upward much more easily. Cells could also be smaller because the cells did not have to hold convicts 24 hours a day. Boston Prison Discipline Society cont. The Boston Prison Discipline Society helped to improve hospitals for the mentally ill as well. In 1827 a committee was sent to investigate conditions in state jails to see how bad they were. Soon, the confinement of the mentally ill was made illegal. Any inmates that were mentally ill were transferred to a mental institution for 120 patients at one time. Many patients came from jails, almshouses, and prisons. Vocabulary Almshouse - a house endowed by private charity for the reception and support of the aged or infirm poor. Ministry - Clergy - the group or body of ordained persons in a religion. Escape Attempt At Newgate Prison there were escape attempts. One in particular was with two inmates named Grubb and Trump. These two made various attempts to take the determination of making a rush (as the prisoners called it). The record of these two was found from the Connecticut Courant, July 7, 1800 issue. Work Cited "Deinstitutionalization - Special Reports | The New Asylums | FRONTLINE | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/asylums/special/excerpt.html>. Full transcript
"Dictionary.com - Free Online English Dictionary." Dictionary.com - Free Online English Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://dictionary.reference.com/>.
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" The Reform of Prisons and Mental Asylums | Auburn Prison Disaster | Event view." xtimeline - Explore and Create Free Timelines. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=778040>. 5/28/13 Social Studies Period 2 Statistics Of the 164 patients that went to the hospital for up to 120 mentally ill patients at one time, one-third of these patients had been confined in jails, almshouses, and prisons. With help from Louis Dwight and other prison reform activists, the mentally ill were counted in the census. Total - 91,959
Living at home - 41,083
Hospitals and asylums for the insane - 40,942
Almshouses - 9,302
Jails - 397
Total number of prisoners - 58,609
Percent the mentally ill contributes to population of all prisons and jails - 0.7% 1880 - Mentally ill in the census 1793 - 1854 Picture Work Cited "African-Americans in Antebellum Boston." PrimaryResearch.org. Primary Research, 20 Mar. 2008. Web. 28 May 2013. <http://www.primaryresearch.org/bh/show.php?dir=prisondisciplinesoc&file=1>. Hecht, William. Auburn Prison. N.d. Auburn, New York images, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~springport/pictures53/5347.jpg. rootsweb.com. Web. 28 May 2013.
"Prison of Newgate." Connectiut courant [Hartford] 21 June 1800: 1-2. Print. Work cited Continued