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Copy of Epigenetics
Transcript of Copy of Epigenetics
What are some processes that are used to analyze epigenetics and what are their possible outcomes?
What are some reasons that may cause epigenetic mutations?
Why is epigenetics important? Concepts and Review: Epigenetics What Mechanisms are Involved? DNA Methylation
Histone Acetylation Reasons Mutations Might Occur Why is Epigenetics Improtant? As new as this research area is it has impacted science by advancing a wide range of studies ranging from; disease formation, environmental and social interactions, to even inheritance.
The deveplopment of epigenetics has uncovered the explaination of many gene expressing mutations, which in turn helped to find cures as well as new analysis methods.
The understanding obtained from the discovery of epigenetics has and will continue to inform ways of preventing and manipulating genetic expressions to our advantage. The Epigenome Study of mutations on gene expressions that do not involve changes in the actual DNA sequence.
These mutations interfere with the arrangement of the epigenome structures
the use of complex enzymatic & transcriptional mechanisms are required By: Learn. Genetics from the University of Utah Typically there are three types of mechanisms that are employed to study and manipulate epigenetic processes. DNA Methylation The addition of methyl groups via covalent bond interaction to specific receptor sites on the actual DNA strand.
Common sites in vertebrate eukaryotes include cytosine residue areas on the 5' end of the CpG dinucleotides, causing a 5'-methylcytosine.
Hypomethylation leads to a decreased gene expression
Hypermethilation leads to an increase in gene expression Histone Methylation Also through covalent interaction up to three methyl groups are added to the histone receptor sites.
Lysine and arginine histone methylation can result in hypermethylation
Cytosine and other receptors like in DNA methylation can cause hypomethylation
Histone hypomethylation results in the tightening or winding of the epigenome, which prevents the recognition of the gene. Histone Acetylation Similar to histone methylation yet it binds an acetyl group to the lysine residues on the N-terminal and core nucleosomes of the histones.
The acetylation of the histones removes the positive charge which relaxes the epigenome structure making it accessable for trancription to take place freely.
Through histine acetylation and deacetylation during embryotic development cause the genetic expressions of specialized cells. Embryonic Development Repercussions Epigenetics plays a big role in the development of embryotic stem cells into specialized cells.
Studies have shown that both maternal and paternal epigenetic mutations are subject to be inherated in daughter and ground generations.
Also epigenetic mutations have reviled that poor parental behavior can cause behavioral and social issues in their children.
Even in virto development there is evidance supporting epigenetic mutations from factors like growing medium to age and condition of the gamete cells. Repercussions on Adult Development Interactive Tutorial on DNA and Histone modification This tutorial game shows how methylation and acetylation mechanisms interact with epigenomes http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/control/ Importance of Epigenetics In adult development stages some epigenetic mutations can lead to cancers, chronic illnesses or remissions,and behavioral abnormalities in offspring.
Factors in everyday lives can cause these alterations in gene expression like; pollution, drug abuse, social interactions, and even previous illnesses.
The greater danger as an adult lies with inheritance factors that could transmit into unwanted genetic traits. The introduction to epigenetics was fundimental by examining the mechanisms behind intra-cellular functions.
These mechanisms became essential ways of understanding how genes work and how can they be manipulated.
With the manipulation of gene expression came the development of various treatments done through epigenetic processes Most Importantly The awareness to the people that simple everyday activities can mutate the gene expression and ultimately passing it on
The reassurance that fate does not belong to pre-desposed genetic material but it can partially be controled though epigenetic mutations. Various conditions ranging from; genetic, immunological, and even behavioral disorders have been observer in humans and their offspring.
Most critical mutations occur in early embryotic developmental stages.
In both in vitro and intrauterine embryotic development showed epigenetic mutations linked to genetic behavior
Mutations occur as a response to the environment so often mutations are developed all throughout adult life stages. http://www.molekularbiologie.abi.med.uni-muenchen.de/ueber_uns/schotta/index.html http://www.scienceinschool.org/2006/issue2/epigenetics http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v17/n3/full/nm.2305.html http://www.kurzweilai.net/does-this-epigenetic-chemical-in-the-brain-help-create-the-brains-complexity http://www.newscientist.com/topic/cancer http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/the-question/should-ivf-be-used-to-avoid-passing-on-mutations-20120706-21lxw.html Your Genes are Not Your Fate Video This video is presented by Dean Ornish who is a clinical professor at UCSF and founder of the Preventive Medicine Research Institute http://www.ted.com/talks/dean_ornish_says_your_genes_are_not_your_fate.html