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Phrases and Clauses

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Gianna Castoria

on 16 January 2013

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Transcript of Phrases and Clauses

Phrases and Clauses What is a Phrase? A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject. Clauses A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.
Independent
Subordinate
Adjective
Adverb
Noun So Remember...
Prepositional
Adjective
Adverb
Participial
Infinitive Prepositional Phrases Includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object
ex: under the umbrella for ourselves
among good friends next to them The noun or pronoun that completes the prepositional phrase is the object of the preposition.
ex: under the umbrella for ourselves
among good friends next to them Any modifier that comes between the preposition and object is part of the prepositional phrase.
ex: under the umbrella
among good friends P.P. is used as an adjective
modifies a noun or pronoun ex: The store with the neon sign is open.
We bought a CD by Janet Jackson. Adverb Phrases Adjective Phrases What kind?
How many? Which one?
How much? modifies a verb, adj, or adv
When? Where? Why? How? How often? How long? To what extent? ex: We got our new puppy at the animal shelter.
He barks loudly for a puppy. Verbal Phrases Participial Phrase made up of a participle, its modifiers, and complements
used as an adjective
close to its modifier ex: Reading the assignment, she took notes carefully.
I saw a rabbit hopping along the fence. Infinitive Phrase made up of an infinitive, its modifiers, and complements
may be used as a noun, an adj, or an adv
typically begins with "to" ex: My ambition is to teach English.
She is the one to call.
The book will be hard to read when closed. Independent Clauses An independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence. ex: My mother drove me to school.
My mother drove me to school, but my brother rode his bicycle.
Since I missed the bus, my mother drove me to school. An independent clause can stand alone as a simple sentence. REMEMBER! Subordinate Clause A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence. <because, if, since, that, until, which, whom> ex: if the dress is too long
that the veterinarian recommended

If the dress is too long, we will hem it.
The new food that the veterinarian recommended is good for our dog. Can be at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of sentences. Adjective Clause a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun ADJ: a blue flower
ADJ P: a flower with blue petals
ADJ C: a flower that has blue petals <that, which, who, whom, whose> Adverb Clause a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, adj, or adv ADV: Bravely, Jason battled a fierce dragon.
ADV P: With great bravery, Jason battled a fierce dragon.
ADV C: Because Jason was brave, he battled a fierce dragon. Subordinating Conjunctions pg. 431 Noun Clause A noun clause is a subordinate clause that has a subject and a verb, and it acts as nouns in sentences. You can always recognize a noun clause by one of the relative pronouns or adverbs that begin the clause. <that, if, whether, WH-words> ex: I don't know where Sara lives.
He said that he was sick.
Whatever you do is your business. PHRASES do not contain both a verb and its subject, whereas CLAUSES contain both a verb and a subject! INDEPENDENT CLAUSES are the main clauses and can stand alone as a complete sentence.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES are dependent, therefore, they are not a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence. The
End Let's practice!
Open your books to page 427 exercise 3.
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