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Quality Management

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Alice Kirby

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of Quality Management

Managing Failure

The Cost Of Failure
Agenda
Things to remember...
A business improvement example:

Collection of all projects ever done by the firm.

Allows PM’s to look back on similar projects to analyze mistakes and not make them again.

This prevents the Hedgehog Effect and can improve the quality of output a project can produce.

Accenture's Knowledge Exchange

Alongside methods like 6 Sigma used in Juran’s Trilogy, there are many other techniques and principles to help drive Quality Improvement in the Develop Stage.

ISO 9004
ISO 15504
Lean
Agile
Quality Circles
Kaizan
Benchmarking


Methods for Quality Improvement

Quality Improvement Process

Heathrow Terminal 5

Case Study

In-process inspections may include the following:

Measuring physical characteristics of a product
Examine products for completeness or assembly
Testing products for performance
Make improvements to existing processes

Inspection in Quality Control

The Bridge Model
Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone), Ishikawa.K
Other Quality Management theories
Chapman, A., 2004-2013 Quality Management Gurus Theories.pdf
In order to have good quality all actions carried out require being planned out, improved and controlled

The process enables control at one level of quality performance, thereafter plans are made on a project by project basis
1 Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service

2 Adopt the new philosophy

3 Cease dependence on mass inspection

4 End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone

5 Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service

6 Institute training

7 Adopt and institute leadership

8 Drive out fear

9 Break down barriers between staff areas

10 Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force

11 Eliminate numerical quotas for the work force

12 Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship

13 Encourage education and self-improvement for everyone

14 Take action to accomplish the transformation
Deming’s 14 points
Chapman, A., 2004-2013 Quality Management Gurus Theories.pdf
Deming’s theory encouraged a systematic approach to problem solving and promoted the Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle also known as the Deming Cycle.
Evolution Of Quality
By Alice Kirby, Hannah Caswell, Sam Gormley, James Harris
Quality Management
Juran’s Trilogy Model

The outcome of these measurements will result in either an acceptable deliverable or a change request.

Deliverables may alter during a project and the PM should control:

Performance characteristics that occur in degrees.
Continuous checks as to whether the result conforms to the deliverables of the project.
The range of acceptable results and boundaries of common variation in processes.


Change or variables called “special variation” occurs when a particular event that is unusual happens during the project.

Once the change request has taken place and defects have been repaired, the deliverable should be checked and altered if need be, until an acceptable standard has been reached.
Deliverables and Change



Quality Control used in communication throughout a project. Failing to provide updates may lead to miss-communication and stakeholder dissatisfaction.

Any Communication Plan should be updated on a regular basis. Also, reviews and updates with the key stakeholders should continue according to the demand. Quality meetings should also take place to review quality related issues.



Stakeholder Management

When multiple activities are required to be completed a quality assurance plan should be created that documents all activities and allows effective project management; WBS, Gantt chart, RAM, comms plan


Assurance Planning
There are many different definitions of quality that are dependent on where each stakeholder interacts with the project.
Defining Quality in Project Management
Quality Improvement looks to analyse and then enhance existing quality performance.

It is best described by Quality guru Dr. Juran "The creation of beneficial change" Within this, there are many methods that can help improve the level of Quality a project outputs.

Whilst it is beneficial to improve upon Quality performance, Managing failure and containing the Cost of Failure are also important steps in this area of the 4-D Model, ‘Develop it’.
Quality Improvement

Many organisations have a heavy emphasis on the Quality Control stage within projects. Juran’s Trilogy supports this, however, also focuses on the importance for Quality Improvement unlike other methodologies.

Juran breaks the Quality Improvement Process into 4 steps:

1. Establish the infrastructure needed to secure annual quality improvement

2. Identify the specific needs for improvement- the improvement projects

3. Establish project teams with clear responsibility for bringing the project to a successful conclusion

4. Provide the resources, motivation, and training needed by the teams to- Diagnose the cause, Stimulate establishment of remedies, and Establish controls to hold the gains.


Quality Control

The PMBOK Guide DEFINES quality control as:
“monitoring specific quality results to determine if they comply with relevant standards and identify ways to eliminate causes of poor performance”.

The key benefits of Quality Control are:
Identify the causes of poor processes.
Validate that the project deliverables and work meet stakeholder requirements.
Results may confirm that all is well. Results also provide feedback to the quality improvement process.
Quality Assurance – What is it?
Quality assurance addresses the project; it is the combined set of activities that the project team will perform to meet project objectives
Ensures minimum standards are met and maintained
Focuses on the process that is used to produce the deliverable not the deliverable itself
Maylor, H., 2010. Project Management, 4th Ed. London: Pearson Education Limited

Quality Management Perspectives

Quality Planning - What is it?

However, before this planning can commence, Quality must be fully defined.

Maylor, H., 2010. Project Management, 4th Ed. London: Pearson Education Limited

Quality In Project Management

Maylor, H., 2010. Project Management, 4th Ed. London: Pearson Education Limited
Project Management Institute (2013). A guide to the Project Management body of knowledge. 5th ed. Newtown Square, : Project Management Institute . 1-200.
APM Body of Knowledge
Rose, K,. 2005. Project Quality Management: Why, what and how,. Florida: Rose Publishing
Juran's quality handbook: The complete guide to performance excellence (6th Ed.)

Further Reading
Edward Deming
DR Joseph M Juran
Why Is It Important To APM?
Defining Quality
Evolution/history
Theories
Quality in PM
Quality Planning
Quality Assurance
Quality Control
Quality Improvement
Conclusion
Define It
Design It
Do It
Develop It
Quality Planning
Quality Assurance
Quality Control
Quality Improvement
The 4 D's
Juran's Quality Trilogy
Do It
Satisfaction = perception – expectation

One of the greatest causes of dissatisfaction during projects is the existence of unrealistic expectations.
The management of failure is required for whatever reason, a stakeholder and particularly a customer becomes dissatisfied with the service being provided or has been provided.

1.Identification
2.Contain the situation
3.Put in place recovery actions to regain customer confidence
4.Ensure that practices are changed so that the incident does not occur again.
Maylor, H., 2010. Project Management, 4th Ed. London: Pearson Education Limited
Growth in science and technology industry

Dependency on products and services

Government regulations

Rise of consumerism market

International competition

Why did it change?
Metrics are a means of measurement to determine the degree of conformance to specifications. They close the loop and link together:
Requirements
Specifications
Assurance activities
The metrics themselves
Using Metrics
Quality Audit
1920
1940
1950
1970/80
1920's
Statistics used as quality control
1940's
Inspection used in manufacturing
1950's
Japan had a reputation for cheap imitation products and looked to change this by the implementation of quality in all industries.
1970/80's
British Standard for Quality introduced in 1979 created in response to Japanese success.

Rose, K,. 2005. Project Quality Management: Why, what and how,. Florida: Rose Publishing
From Deming, W.E., Out of the Crisis, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2000, pp. 24–86.
PLAN
DO
ACT
CHECK
The improvement methodology focuses on learning and the idea to constantly improve.
QUALITY CONTROL
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
QUALITY PLANNING
The Quality Trilogy
Example
You (project sponsor) asked to review the business case
if you actually review the document and its contents this is Quality Control
If you look at the process that was used i.e. research methods, needs and feasibility assessment this is Quality Assurance
Tracks and tunnels had two different product breakdown structures (PBS)
No key project manager
When the two finally came together the trains didn’t fit into the tunnels
London underground refurbishment
Example
Requirement — Responsive telephone hotline service
Specification — Answer 99 percent of hotline service calls within one ring
Assurance activity — Determine percentage of calls answered on one ring during a forty-eight-hour period
Metric — Percentage of calls answered on one ring
Definition of Audit:
Defintion of Quality Audit:
An audit is a systematic independent, documented assessment using standards and set criteria
Quality Planning is “identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them.”

Project Managers must not depend on inspection and correction to achieve project quality. Project Managers should, through planning and design build in quality at all stages of a project using a Quality Management plan.
Primary mechanism for determining the effectiveness of quality assurance activities and is a structured review of performance against the plan
Involves looking at different stages of the project such as accountability, lessons learnt, record keeping, communication

It will always take place in the Quality Control stage

Can be mandatory in some projects when legal standards must be upheld
DESIGN
IT
DO
IT
DO
IT
DO
IT
DO
IT
DO
IT
Time
Cost
Quality
Time
Cost
Quality
Scope
Development of the Iron triangle
Millennium Dome
£230 million over budget
£30 million project closure not anticipated
Poor stakeholder management
Missed original deadline
Didn't meet visitor forecasts
Problem
Cause
Cause
1. Definition of quality is conformance to requirements
2. The system of quality is prevention
3. The performance standard is zero defects
4. The measurement of quality is the cost of non conformance
The 4 Absolutes of Quality, Crosby.P
Statistical Process Control, Shewart.W
Example - iPhone 5
Manufacturer - may view Quality in terms of the manufacturing process being defect free.

Customer - may view Quality in terms of the look and feel of the final product in their hand.
Project Managers must manage the different:
Communication channels
Perceptions of Quality
Expectations of Quality
An analytical decision making tool which allows you to see when a process is working correctly and when it is not.
Variation is present in any process, deciding when the variation is natural and when it needs correction is key.
ISO, 2011. ISO 9000 Quality management. {online}. Available from: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_9000. Switzerland
T5 was one of Europe's largest construction sites.
BAA were handed over the project to develop it.
They had a detailed Quality Control process.
Included audits, inspection and testing and key indicators.
Maylor, H., 2010. Project Management, 4th Ed. London: Pearson Education Limited
There are many perspectives a Project Manager can also take to Quality. These are listed below and affect the way a Project Manager would approach managing Quality.
The process is not to identify the cost of quality but to reduce it.
Companies with a good quality system will devote 2% of turnover to the cost.

Companies with poor quality systems will devote over 20% of turnover to the cost.
Maylor, H., 2010. Project Management, 4th Ed. London: Pearson Education Limited
Maylor, H., 2010. Project Management, 4th Ed. London: Pearson Education Limited
Thank you for listening
Any Questions?
DESIGN
IT
DEFINE
IT
DESIGN
IT
DESIGN
IT
DEFINE
IT
DEFINE
IT
DEFINE
IT
DEFINE
IT
DEVELOP
IT
DEVELOP
IT
DEVELOP
IT
DEVELOP
IT
DEVELOP
IT
DEVELOP
IT
Chapman, A., 2004-2013 Quality Management Gurus Theories.pdf
Maylor, H., 2010. Project Management, 4th Ed. London: Pearson Education Limited
Chapman, A., 2004-2013 Quality Management Hisory.pdf
Control Tools
DO
IT

Four Stages of Quality

Plays an important role throughout every stage of a project

PM must manage the different perspectives of quality amongst stakeholders throughout a project.

You must plan to achieve.

Acknowledge projects can go wrong, manage any failures and introduce improvements for future projects.
Project Management Institute (2013). A guide to the Project Management body of knowledge. 5th ed. Newtown Square, : Project Management Institute . 1-200.
Ron Basu (2013). Managing Quality in Projects . Burlington, VT: Gower. 1-200.
Ron Basu (2013). Managing Quality in Projects . Burlington, VT: Gower. 1-200.
Project Management Institute (2013). A guide to the Project Management body of knowledge. 5th ed. Newtown Square, : Project Management Institute . 1-200.
Project Management Institute (2013). A guide to the Project Management body of knowledge. 5th ed. Newtown Square, : Project Management Institute . 1-200.
Project Management Institute (2013). A guide to the Project Management body of knowledge. 5th ed. Newtown Square, : Project Management Institute . 1-200.
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