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Ecological Succession (A2 Biology)
Transcript of Ecological Succession (A2 Biology)
WHY ARE PIONEER SPECIES IMPORTANT?
Ecological succession is the process by which the structure of a biological community evolves over time.
WHAT IS 'SUCCESSION'?
There are two types of succession
Secondary succession occurs on preexisting soil after the primary succession has been disrupted or destroyed due to a disturbance that reduced the population of the initial inhabitants.
As we've just seen, both succession types are normally initiated by the presence of pioneer species.
"What are pioneer species?"
Pioneer species, such as
, colonise disturbed sites or raw mineral soils and make them easier for succeeding plants species to grow in
These are the first species to occupy a new habitat, starting new communities.
Pioneer plants have rapid reproductive strategies, enabling them to quickly occupy uninhabited areas. Many have an asexual stage to their reproduction.
WHAT ARE PIONEER SPECIES?
They are the first to decompose chemically, allowing for nutrients for other organisms such as new plants to grow.
As the glacier begins to retreat, completely bare moraine is exposed.
Over time, the pioneer plants alter the soil so that shrubs can grow.
Eventually, poorly drained soils become covered with sphagnum bog, and drier areas with conifer forest.
Dwarf fireweed is one of the first pioneer plants to colonise the moraine.
An accumulation of earth and stones carried forward and deposited by a glacier
A species of moss, its leaves having a capability of holding large volumes of water.
By Hazera and Zakir
Primary succession occurs following an opening of uninhabited, barren habitat, or that occurs on an environment that is devoid of vegetation and usually lacking topsoil.
A fungus that usually grows symbiotically with algae, resulting in a composite organism that characteristically forms a crust-like or branching growth on rocks or tree trunks.